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1

multi store model of memory (MSM)

Attempts to illustrate how memories are formed through the interactions of memory stores and control processes made by Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968)

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"stores" of memory

sensory memory

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modality specific stores

different stores for different modes of information

ex. auditory store

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4

control process

a cognitive process that controls the flow of information from one store to another

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5

what are the different control processes?

attention

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what is the first store in the msm?

sensory store

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7

how long is echoic memory?

3-4 seconds (auditory)

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how long is iconic memory?

1/3 - 1 second (visual)

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9

what is the capacity of the sensory store?

unlimited

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which control process moves info from the sensory store to the short-term store?

attention

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11

what control process keeps info in the short term store?

rehearsal

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12

how long is short term memory?

15-30 seconds

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13

what is the capacity of short term memory?

7 +/- 2 items

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what control process moves info from short term to long term store?

transfer

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15

how long is long term memory?

unlimited

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what is the capacity of long term memory?

unlimited

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what control process moves info from long term to short term store?

retrieval

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what correlation is explained through the msm?

there is a positive correlation between the amount of rehearsal of something and the strength of the memory trace created

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memory trace

a change in the brain' structure that facilitates memory storage. neurons change their structure as a result of new learning.

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decay

when information that is not rehearsed may be lost through the short-term store

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capacity

the amount of information that can be held in the store

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duration

how long information can stay in the store for

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Peterson and Peterson (1959)

aim: determine the duration of short-term memory

  • participants were given one random trigram to remember

  • TRIGRAM: meaningless consonant triplet

  • they were asked to count backwards in 3s from a random 3 digit number (to prevent rehearsal)

  • then they were asked to recall the trigram

each subject was tested eight times for each of the recall intervals (3

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HM (personal background)

  • suffered from EPILEPSY (a disorder w uncontrollable seizures)

  • at 29

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case study of HM (Milner and Scoville)

aim: to assess the influence of the hippocampus on memory

  1. they tested HM by giving him info to remember and then coming back later to ask him to recall the info

  2. asked HM to trace a star in a reflection

  3. other methods: home observations

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but if he was distracted

he would forget it 2. over successive trials

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working memory model (WMM)

An explanation that sees short-term memory as an active store holding several pieces of information simultaneously.

Made by Baddeley and Hitch

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working memory

the process of consciously keeping information in your mind and retrieving information from your long term memory into your short term working memory

includes information in our environment and what we're consciously thinking about & the internal rehearsal of information that might enable us to transfer memory

aka short term memory

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phonological loop

the part of working memory that is responsible for auditory information

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it is a temporary storage and rehearsal system for auditory information

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what is the phonological loop divided into?

  1. phonological store

  2. articulatory process

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32

phonological store

the inner ear

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the storage aspect of the phonological loop

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articulatory process

the inner voice

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the rehearsal portion of the phonological loop

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cognitive capacity

our ability to perform cognitive processes ex. our working memory capacity: how much information we can hold in our working memory

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visuo-spatial sketchpad

the aspect of your working memory that enables you to "see" memory

aka inner eye

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parts of the visuospatial sketchpad

visual cache and inner scribe

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visual cache

Stores information about visual form and color

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inner scribe

Records the arrangement of objects in the visual field

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slave systems

phonological loop

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central executive

the "boss" who controls the workings of the slave systems

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enables the shifts between the diff slave systems

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executive functions

the processes of the central executive

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episodic buffer

a store within the short-term store that can hold chunks of information until it is needed

serves to connect the components of working memory with sensory perception and long term memory

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modality

a mode of information

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the type of information being processed (ex. visual or verbal)

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dual-task paradigm

requires participants to process visual and/or verbal information simultaneously

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robbins et al (1996)

aim: investigate the effect of processing interfering information on memory recall

  • participant sits between two chess boards

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left one is in the middle of a game (covered) and right is a new one

conditions:

  1. control: study the left for 10 sec and then rearrange the right one to match

  2. phonological loop: while rearranging the pieces they have to say the word "the"

  3. visuo-spatial: while rearranging the pieces

they have to also type into a keyboard 4. central executive: while rearranging they had to generate a random string of letters

results: 2. phonological loop: 16/25 accuracy 3. visuo spatial: 4/25 accuracy

provides evidence to support the existence of separate slave systems in WMM since the act of rearranging the pieces requires visuo-spatial memory

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51

what are some correlations made with working memory capacity?

  • there is a correlation between working memory capacity and reading comprehension

  • poor working memory capacity is correlated w the ability to maintain focus and concentration (attention)

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executive cognitive function

the central executive's ability to control slave systems and focus our attention

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klingberg et al (2005)

aim: investigate the effects of computer-based training on working memory

  • pariticipants: 14 children ages 7 to 15 diagnosed w ADHD

  • treatment and control group

  • the treatment group was given a computer training program aimed to help their working memory

  • the difficulty increased through the program

  • other group received a placebo training

results: the children in the treatment group showed significant improvements in working memory capacity

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54

response inhibition

a measure of cognitive control and refers to the ability to suppress actions that are inappropriate

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fear conditioning

developing a fear response to particular stimuli after repeated exposure to stimuli coupled w aversive outcomes

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conditioning

learning to respond to a stimulus based on your experiences of that stimulus

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conditioned response

when you have learned to respond to a particular stimulus in a certain way

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Baby Albert Experiment

John Watson classically conditioned a baby to fear a white rat. Then the baby feared all white furry things.

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neutral stimulus

something that the learner has not previously been afraid of

ex. white rat in Baby Albert

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aversive stimulus

something that is unwanted

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conditioned stimuli

something that someone has been conditioned to feel feat towards

ex. rat and rabbit in baby albert

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classical conditioning

a type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events

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associative learning

learning how to associate one thing with another

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cortisol

a stress hormone released during the stress response as a result of activation of the amygdala

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the stress response helps to _______________ memory

consolidate

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consolidating memory

transferring memory from the short-term store to the long-term store

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Buchanan and Lovallo (2001)

aim: investigate the effect of cortisol on memory

  • participants: 50/50 male and female

  • two conditions: 1) treatment (20 mg cortisol)

  1. placebo

  • images were shown to participants (arousing emotions)

  • participants rated the emotional impact of the images

  • one week later

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developing an autonomic fear response

when your autonomic nervous system (including the amygdala) unconsciously triggers physiological responses (ex. releasing hormones) when a threatening stimulus is perceived

an important survival adaptation as it helps us to deal w threats

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affective stimulus

something that generates an emotional response

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what have brain scans on patients with PTSD revealed?

  1. reduced volume in the hippocampus

  2. a hyper-responsive amygdala (it activates in response to stimuli more frequently and at a higher rate than normal) -> could explain "increased startle responses"

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what type of response is seen between cortisol and memory consolidation?

an inverted-U response: too little or too much cortisol might not have a significant effect

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amygdala hijack

experiencing high levels of emotion and increased irritability (can be due to a hyper-responsive amygdala)

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structure of the hippocampus

it is one of the most plastic parts of the brain and is vulnerable to stress and damage

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Sapolsky (1990)

aim: investigate the effect of cortisol on the hippocampus

  • participants: 4 young adult monkeys

  • implanted pellets into their hippocampus

  1. control = cholesterol pellets

  2. treatment = cortisol pellets

results: the monkeys w cortisol pellets had significant damage to their neurons in the hippocampus

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dendritic atrophy

the shrinking and decay of dendrites

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symptoms associated w memory that veterans experience

  • flashbacks

  • nightmares

  • intrusive memories

  • amnesia

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what does HM and studies about the effect of cortisol on the hippocampus show about veterans w PTSD?

  • HM shown that the hippocampus plays a role in long-term declarative memory formation

  • damage to this area (due to high cortisol levels) could explain why patients w PTSD display cognitive problems

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positive effects of emotion on cognition

the association of an aversive stimuli and the conditioned fear with the following amygdala activation that facilitates the release of cortisol can help consolidate memory

serves as an important survival function in that it enables us to develop memories that will help us to avoid danger

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79

negative effects of emotion on cognition

prolonged stress leads to elevated cortisol levels over long periods of time that may reduce the functioning capabilities of the hippocampus

could explain some of the common cognitive symptoms of PTSD (impaired memory abilities + inability to remember details)

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80

multi store model of memory (MSM)

Attempts to illustrate how memories are formed through the interactions of memory stores and control processes made by Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968)

New cards
81

"stores" of memory

sensory memory, short-term memory, long-term memory

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82

modality specific stores

different stores for different modes of information

ex. auditory store, visual store

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83

control process

a cognitive process that controls the flow of information from one store to another

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84

what are the different control processes?

attention, rehearsal, transfer, and retrieval

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85

what is the first store in the msm?

sensory store

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86

how long is echoic memory?

3-4 seconds (auditory)

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87

how long is iconic memory?

1/3 - 1 second (visual)

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88

what is the capacity of the sensory store?

unlimited

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89

which control process moves info from the sensory store to the short-term store?

attention

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90

what control process keeps info in the short term store?

rehearsal

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91

how long is short term memory?

15-30 seconds

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92

what is the capacity of short term memory?

7 +/- 2 items

New cards
93

what control process moves info from short term to long term store?

transfer

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94

how long is long term memory?

unlimited

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95

what is the capacity of long term memory?

unlimited

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96

what control process moves info from long term to short term store?

retrieval

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97

what correlation is explained through the msm?

there is a positive correlation between the amount of rehearsal of something and the strength of the memory trace created

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98

memory trace

a change in the brain' structure that facilitates memory storage. neurons change their structure as a result of new learning.

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99

decay

when information that is not rehearsed may be lost through the short-term store

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100

capacity

the amount of information that can be held in the store

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