F1 Midterm Exam - IS

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Science

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Unit 1 and Unit 2

131 Terms

1

Science

The study of phenomena and events in Nature through systematic observation and experimentation

2

The branches of science

Physics, chemistry, biology, astronomy, geology, medicine

3

Major natural resources

water, living things, fossil fuels, air, metal ores

4

Renewable resources

Resources that can be replenished continuously in Nature and will not be used up

5

Examples of renewable resources

Plants, animals, water, air

6

Non-renewable resources

Resources that cannot be replenished in a short time once they are used up. Their supply is limited

7

Examples of non-renewable resources

Fossil fuels, metal ores

8

Natural resources that are seriously affected by pollution

Water and air

9

What problems cannot be solved by using scientific knowledge?

Relationships, ethics, wars

10

Scientific knowledge is subject to ()

change

11

Steps in a scientific investigation

Observe, form a hypothesis, design and do experiments, analyse, draw a conclusion

12

Science process skills

observing, classifying, inferring, communicating

13

Types of scientific investigations

Fair tests, classifying, pattern seeking, model building

14

Independant variable

The only variable that is changed

15

dependant variable

The variable to be measured

16

controlled variables

Variables that are kept the same

17

Classifying

Comparing the similarities and differences between objects, and sorting those with similarities into groups

18

Pattern seeking

Observing and recording natural phenomena and trying to find a pattern

19

Model building

Represent objects that are too small or too big to see

20

Laboratory safety equipment (4)

Safety goggles, protective gloves, fire blanket, sand bucket

21

Potential dangers in the laboratory (4)

Should tie up long hair, should wear safety goggles, should not eat or drink, should not leave Bunsen flame unattended

22

Hazard warning symbols

Flammable, corrosive, explosive, toxic, harmful or irritant

23

Flammable

Keep away from heat and flame

24

Corrosive

Wear safety goggles and protective gloves when handling the chemical. Store in a well ventilated room

25

Explosive

Keep away from heat and flame. Avoid shock

26

Toxic, harmful, irritant

Avoid breathing in the vapour of the chemical. Wear safety goggles and protective gloves when handling the chemical. Wash your hands thoroughly after handling the chemical

27

Cuts

Clean the wound with water and apply a dressing to it

28

Heat burns or chemical burns

Place the affected area under slow running water

29

Chemicals got into the eyes

Wash the eyes with distilled water from an eye wash bottle

30

Glass breakage

Clean up broken pieces of glass and dispose of them in a broken glass container

31

Gas leakage

Turn off the gas supply and open all windows and doors

32

Fires

Keep calm and report to your teacher at once

33

Fire triangle

Fuel, oxygen and a high temperature

34

Using fire beaters

Stop the supply of oxygen

35

Spraying with water

Lowers the temperature

36

Cutting down trees

Remove the fuel

37

How should we read the scale when measuring the length of an object with a ruler

From vertically above

38

Meniscus

The curved surface of liquid in the measuring cylinder

39

How should we take an accurate reading of the liquid in the measuring cylinder?

At the bottom of the meniscus

40

What can we use to measure the mass of an object?

A balance

41

What can we use to measure the temperature of an object?

Thermometer

42

How should we take an accurate reading of the thermometer?

Our eyes should be at the same level as the liquid level

43

What do we usually use to measure time?

A stopwatch

44

Why do we often repeat the measurement several times and then calculate an average value?

To reduce errors

45

Ways to transfer solutions

Pouring and using a dropper

46

Different methods to mix solutions well (2)

Use a glass rod to stir, gently shake the test tube

47

Luminous flame

Air hole is closed, irregular shape, yellow in colour, lower temperature, quiet

48

Non-luminous flame

Air hole is open, regular shape, blue in colour, higher temperature, noisy

49

Strike back

Air hole is fully open, green in colour, high temperature, hissing sound

50

Physical states of water

Solid, liquid, gas

51

Solid

Ice

52

Liquid

Water

53

Gas

Water vapour

54

Melting

The change from solid state to liquid state

55

Melting takes place at a () temperature, what is it called?

fixed, melting point

56

Melting point

0 degrees Celsius

57

Does the temperature change during the process of melting?

No

58

When ice melts, does it absorbs or releases energy?

Absorbs

59

Freezing

The change from liquid state to solid state

60

Freezing takes place at a () temperature, what is it called?

fixed, freezing point

61

Does the temperature change during the process of freezing?

No

62

The freezing point of water

0 degrees Celsius

63

When ice freezes, does it absorbs or releases energy?

Releases

64

Boiling and Evaporation

The change from liquid state to gas state

65

Boiling takes place at a () temperature, what is it called?

fixed, boiling point

66

Boiling point of water

100 degrees Celsius

67

What happens when water is heated to its boiling point?

It changes to steam

68

Does the temperature change during the process of boiling?

No

69

When water boils, does it absorbs or releases energy?

Absorbs

70

Evaporation takes place at () temperature

Any

71

What happens when water evaporates?

It changes into water vapour

72

When water evaporates, does it absorbs or releases energy?

Absorbs

73

Condesation

The change from gas state to liquid state

74

When does condensation happen?

When water vapour in air comes into contact with cold surfaces

75

What happens when water vapour in air condenses into water?

Water droplets are formed on the surfaces

76

When water vapour or steam condenses into water, does it absorbs or releases energy?

Releases

77

Which two changes of state in water are in the water cycle?

Evaporation and condensation

78

When does the rate of evaporation increase?

The temperature is higher, the humidity is lower, there is more airflow and the surface area exposed is larger

79

Solution

When a substance dissolves in a liquid

80

Solute

The substance that dissolves

81

Solvent

The liquid in which the substance dissolves

82

Water

Universal solvent

83

Soluble

Can be dissolved

84

Insoluble

Cannot be dissolved

85

When does the rate of dissolving increase?

The solution is stirred, the temperature of the solvent is higher, the surface area of the solute is larger

86

Solubility

The maximum amount of solute that can be dissolved an a fixed amount of solvent

87

What does the solubility of a substance in water change with?

Temperature

88

What does natural water contain a lot of?

Impurities

89

Two most common microorganisms found in natural water

Amoeba and E.coli

90

Methods of water purification

Sedimentation, filtration and distillation

91

Sedimentation

Large and heavy insoluble impurities sink to the bottom of the container and form a layer of sendiment

92

Commonly used filters in the laboratory

Filter columns, filter paper

93

What does filter paper have?

Many tiny pores

94

Residue

Impurities that cannot pass through the pores and are trapped by the filter paper

95

Filtrate

Liquid, microorganisms and soluble impurities that passes through

96

Distillation

The process of boiling and condensing water

97

What can distillation remove?

insoluble and soluble impurities and microorganisms

98

Methods to kill microorganisms in water

Chlorination, adding ozone and using ultraviolet light

99

Disadvantages of chlorination

Toxic and has an irritating smell

100

Advantages of ozone

Does not have an irritating smell and is more effective in killing microorganisms

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