Geography 204 Lecture Test #2

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what is soil colour?

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1

what is soil colour?

it gives a lot of clues about the constituent materials of soil (e.g. darker = more organic, red = contains iron, etc.)

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2

what is the munsell colour chart?

shows the different colour hues (specifically differences in yellow and reds in 10 yrs); up/down = different intensities and right/left = different 'chroma'

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3

what is the texture chart?

its units measuring size - size is used to determine whether soil sample is clay, silt, sand and/or a combo; size class shows boundary between other grain size classes

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4

what are the key boundaries of the texture chart?

between gravel and sand (2.0mm), between sand and silt (0.0625mm) and between silt and clay (0.0039mm); clays=mud and granule='fine gravel'

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5

what is a structure?

plants (vegetation needs water and moisture that is dependent on these clumping patterns) and hydrology (water flow and water science)

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6

what does clumping matter?

becausse it affect water infiltration (vertical = water can easily percolate down, horizontal = hard for water to get down)

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7

the amount of water can affect its _____________

behaviour

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8

what are the three types of water in the ground that soil can hold on to?

1. gravitational, 2. capillary and 3. hygroscopic

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9

what is gravitational water?

water percolates and drains through the soil

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10

what is capillary water?

roots grab the water that is surrounding them; this water is really good for plants and sticks around for a bit after rainfall

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11

what is hygroscopic water?

water is adhered to the soil so well that it is generally not available to plants.

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12

what are the main soils in canada?

chernozems, cryosols, podzols (fairly acidic forest soils) and solonetz (a lot of salt - not as productive as chernozems)

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13

what is soil a combination of?

climate, vegetation, topography, humidity; all influence the type of soil you'll get

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14

what is soil erosion a problem of?

soil production

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15

what are the different types of soil erosion?

wind, water driven, sheet wash, rill erosion and gully erosion

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16

what is sheet wash erosion?

water may flow as a sheet across the landscape and the water flows and erodes particals

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17

what is rill erosion?

small rivulets of running water gather together and cut small channels -- shallow drainage lines less than 30cm deep (intermediate stage between sheet and gully)

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18

what is gully erosion?

rills enlarge to form bigger channels too large to be removed by normal tillage -- channels deeper than 30cm deep that cannot be removed by normal cultivation

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19

what happens as soil erodes?

we lose nutrients

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20

what are soils according to dave montgomery?

strategic resources

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21

how much land has been loss (apprx) according to dave montgomery?

about 480 million hectares of land lost

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22

the past we are losing soil is not _____________

sustainable

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23

soil is ____________ according to dave montgomery

self dynamic, self-identifying

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24

bronze age (_________), dark age (__________), classical age (___________), and then modern age (_________)

popularity density rises, popularity density decreases, popoularity density rises and then popularity density rises again

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25

what did thomas jefferson do?

created new plowing system to slow down erosion

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26

when was the soil conservation service established?

mid 1930's

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27

what is the soil conservation service called now?

national resources conservation act

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28

the soil conservation act:

established the soil conservation service, which deals with soil erosion problems, carries out soil surveys, and does research on soil salinity.

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29

did the soil conservative help soil erosion?

did NOT solve soil erosion, but is and was incredibly innovative; soil will NEVER grow at the rate it is destroyed

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30

erosion rates and soil production:

soil eroded about an inch every 14 000 yrs (500mya), now it erodes an inch every 60 yrs while soil produces 1 inch every 500 yrs

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31

how should we change our agricultural practices?

reduce subsidies for conventional, erosive practices, increase support for no-till practices and prompt practices that increase soil organic matter to both sequsester carbon and improve soil fertility

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32

we are at peak _______

oil

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33

can we make soil faster than nature does?

yes. takes organic matter and labour (adding organic matter BACK into the soil)

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34

by the late 20th century....

1/3 of carbon added to the atmosphere since the industrial revolution came from degraded soil organic matter

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35

GTc means?

gigatons of carbon

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36

how much carbon does global soil emit?

1500 Gtc

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37

how much carbon does global atmosphere emit?

760 Gtc

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38

how much carbon does biomass decay emit?

60 GTc/yr

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39

how much does fossil fuel emissions emit?

7 GTc/yr

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40

capture of:

10% of biomass decay as biochar would offset glibal fossil fiel emissions

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41

what is biochar?

charcoal used for agricultural purposes, bioenergy wastes and agricultural wastes could be converted. It has a lot of surface area and negative charge and so can hold a lot of nutrients on the surface

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42

soil is a mystery: renaissance?

soil is a descipherable mystery

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43

soil is a mystery: 19th centure?

chemical reservoir, medium to be fertilized as needed

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44

soil is a mystery: modern machinery?

an industrial commodity to be used

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45

soil is a mystery: finally?

soil is an ecosystem to be understood and worked with

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46

restoring soils can help:

feed the world, climate change and public health

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47

what is water storage?

storage of water on planet and movement of water between the "stores"

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48

what are basic locations of water storages?

atmosphere (water vapour, clouds, etc.), surface of earth (oceans (not freshwater), lakes, glaciers) and ground (rocks, fissures, empty spaces in the rocks, soil)

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49

what is the snowmelt run off?

water than runs off land surface into lakes,r ivers and oceans (as if in "storage)

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50

snowmelt runoff precipitation:

any source reaching the ground (rain, snow, frost)

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51

snowmelt runoff interception:

water being prevented by reaching the surface by trees/grass (doesn't land on ground, intercepts the rainfall and lands on leaves)

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52

what is surface storage?

water held on the ground storage (puddles)

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53

surface storage infiltration:

water sinking into soil/rock from the ground surface

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54

what is soil mositure?

water held in the soil layer

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55

what is percolation?

water seeping deeper below the surface

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56

what is groundwater?

water stored in the rock

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57

what is transpiration?

water lost through pores in vegetation

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58

what is evaporation?

water lost from ground/vegetation surface (liquid to gas)

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59

what is surface runoff (overland flow)?

water flowing on top of the ground -- a high rate of rain that soil can't infiltrate and percolate it fast enough

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60

what is groundwater flow?

water flowing slowly below the water table through permeable rock

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61

what is the water table?

the level below which the ground is saturated with water (the upper level)

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62

what is base flow?

standard flow of water

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63

what is sublimation?

solid to gas

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64

what is porous/non-porous?

empty spaces in pores

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65

what are no-pore spaces?

non-porous, non-permeable (can't get water through)

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66

what are unconnected pore spaces?

porous non-permeable (can't get through readily)

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67

what are connected pore spaces?

porous permeable (can get water through it)

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68

what is porosity?

total volume of empty space in a material (total pore space divided by total volume)

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69

what is permeability?

means water can be transmitted (permeability = r (size of pore spaces, pore connectivity)

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70

what is "flat land"?

micro-topography

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71

what is infiltration capacity?

the maximum rate at which rain can be absorbed by a soil

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72

what is infiltration rate?

rate at which water enters the soil

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73

what does infiltration rate depend on?

water input rate, infiltration capacity (texture fo soil or rock properties -- usually in relation to a dry soil), and moisture content in soil profile

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74

what is the vadose zone?

the unsaturated zone above the water table

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75

what is the groundwater zone?

the saturated zone

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76

the water table....

is the boundary the separates the vadoes and saturation zones

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77

what is throughflow?

water moves relatively quickly to river by surface runoff and throughflow

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78

what is groundwater flow?

the slow movement of water through underlying rocks (follows a sort of pressure flow/path)

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79

what is a drainage basin?

defined by ridges that separate (water) flow into adjacent ones (outlets = where all the water that lands would exist through)

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80

Q(m3/sec) =

area (m2) times velocity (m/s) -- this gives discharge

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81

Q =

stream discharge

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82

what is stream discharge?

stream velocity times cross-sectional area

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83

what is a hydrograph?

measures a stream's discharge over time

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84

what is a rising limb?

a lot later than rainfall

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85

what is lag time?

between when rainfall is happening and when the river is responding

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86

what is the falling/recession limb?

discharge gradually goes back to it's previous base flow

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87

snowmelt graphs _____

go on for longer

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88

what are floodplains?

low flat valleys through which rivers flow (not as fast as the riverflow)

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89

what is agricultural drought?

amount of precipitation at particular location varies year to year about some average, although there may be long-term changes

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90

what is a drought?

period of drier-than-normal conditions that result in water-related problems

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91

what is meteorological drought?

the degree of dryness compared to normal precipitation

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92

what is agricultural drought (definition?)

links meteorlogical drought to agricultural impacts, accounting for soil and plant properties

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93

what is hydrological drought?

related to the effects of dryness on surface and groundwater supplies

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94

what is socioeconomic drought?

connects other types of droughts with their economic consequence

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95

evapotranspiration (ET)

evaporation + transpiration

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96

what is plant transpiration?

natural prcoess by plants

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97

what is relative humidity?

the amount of water vapor present in air expressed as a percentage of the amount needed for saturation at the same temperature

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98

what is dryland farming?

cultivation of crops without irrigation in regions with limited moisture (makes best use of soil moisture from winter precipitation or spring/summer rainfall

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99

dryland farming includes:

wide spacing, strict weed control and crops suited to dry farming practices

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100

what is irrigated farming?

artifical application of water to soil

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