mitosis and meiosis

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Cell cycle consists of

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Biology

8th

125 Terms

1

Cell cycle consists of

interphase and mitosis

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interphase

growth and development of the cell

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mitosis

cell division

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cell spends most of it’s life in…

interphase because there are three stages

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3 stages of interphase

G1, S, G2

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G1

growth of the cell

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S

synthesis - DNA gets copied

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more detailed synthase phase

DNA (chromosomes) are duplicated into sister chromatids

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G2

more growth to prepare for cell division

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checkpoints in the cell cycle *purpose?

Where proteins regulate the cell cycle & check that all is normal

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Chromosomes

a complex of tightly coiled DNA and protein

accurate representation: )(

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Genome

an entire set of DNA for a cell

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products of mitosis

2 identical daughter cells

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main goals of mitosis (2)

growth of the organism, repair/replace damaged and old cells

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types of cells that undergo mitosis

body cells (somatic) in animals, plant cells

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simple version of mitosis steps

  1. chromosomes are copied to form sister chromatids

  2. sister chromatids separate to opposite sides of the cell

  3. the cell divides and 2 identical daughter cells are formed

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steps of mitosis

interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, cytokinesis

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interphase

cell grows, copies DNA, prepares for cell division, and centrioles form

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state of DNA in interphase

in the form of chromatin

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Chromatin

"loosened up”, uncoiled form of DNA

accurate representation: ~~~~

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Prophase

Chromosomes coil (become visible), nucleus begins to break down, centrioles move to opposite ends of cell and produce spindle fibers

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Chromosomes

coiled DNA

Accurate representation: (

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centrioles

organelle that forms the spindle fibers

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spindle fibers

fibers that attach to sister chromatids (to pull them apart)

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Metaphase

sister chromatids attach to spindle fibers at the centromere, sis chromatids line up in the middle of cell

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sister chromatids

pairs of chromosomes that have been copied and joined together

accurate representation: ))((

*different from chromatids

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Chromatids

chromosome and its copy UNCOMBINED

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centromere

region of chromosomes where spindle fibers attach to sis chromatids

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Anaphase

sis chromatids are pulled towards opposite ends of cell by spindle fibers

accurate representation: )) --------- ((

(------ = spindle fiber)

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Telophase

Chromosomes are on opposite ends, spindle fibers break down, nucleus forms around chromosomes, and chromosomes uncoil back into chromatin

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cytokinesis

Division in cytoplasm - produces identical daughter cells

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What is DNA

a sequence of nucleic acids with instructions for making proteins

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nucleic acid pairings

Adenine (A) with Thymine (T)

Guanine (G) with Cytosine (C)

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A goes with ..

T

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G goes with..

C

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Gene

a sequence of DNA that contains the instructions for a single protein

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Allele

different variations or versions of the same gene

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different DNA sequences mean

different alleles → different look/appearance

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when an organism inherits 2 copies of each chromosome it inherits

2 copies of each gene and 2 copies of each allele

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cells that go through meiosis

reproductive cells

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human somatic cells have

46 chromosomes

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haploid cell

cell containing half the number of chromosomes of an organism

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diploid cell

cell containing 2 sets of chromosomes

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fertilization

egg cell and sperm cell combining to form a zygote

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gametes

egg and sperm cells

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zygote

joint gametes (first cell of new organism)

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example of haploid cell

gametes

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example of diploid cell

somatic cells

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meiosis

process of cell division that produces gametes

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characteristics of meiosis

  1. all cells go through 2 divisions

  2. 4 daughter cells are produced

  3. daughter cells are not identical to parent cells

  4. daughter cells have half the amount of parent cell dna

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Homologous chromosomes

chromosomes that have the same genes in the same locations and are the same size

2 genes - 1 mom, 1 dad

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Meiosis 1 stages

prophase 1 w/ special event, crossing over, metaphase 1, anaphase 1, telophase 1, cytokinesis 1

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prophase 1

dna coils into chromosomes, nucleus starts to break down, centrioles form spindle fibers

*important because same as mitosis

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special event

homologous chromosomes pair up, pairs are crammed in nucleus of cell

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Crossing over

randomized swapping of portions of chromosomes (DNA) during prophase 1

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what allows crossing over to occur

close proximity of homologous chromosomes

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what happens after the crossing over phase

chromosomes look different - allows for genetic diversity

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metaphase 1

spindle fibers attach to centromere, homologous chromosome pairs line up in middle of cell

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Anaphase 1

homologous chromosomes are pulled away from each other - opposite ends of cell

*pairs are separated

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telophase 1

chromosomes uncoil, nucleus forms

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Cytokinesis 1

cytoplasm divides = 2 haploid daughter cells - not identical

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steps of meiosis 2

Prophase 2, metaphase 2, anaphase 2, telophase 2, and cytokinesis 2

*same steps and results (except cytokinesis 2) as meiosis 1 except happening to 2 cells simultaneously

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prophase 2

dna condenses, nucleus breaks, spindle fibers form

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metaphase 2

spindle fibers attach to centromeres, chromatids line up in middle of cell

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Anaphase 2

chromosomes are pulled away from each other bc of spindle fibers - opposite ends of the cell

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telophase 2

chromosomes uncoil, nucleus forms

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Cytokinesis 2

cytoplasm splits = 4 haploid daughter cells not identical

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what do capital and lowercase letters represent on genes

alleles

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genotype

genetic makeup of a gene (2 alleles)

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capital letter

dominant allele

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lower case letter

recessive allele

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when dominant allele is present in genotype

  1. it gets written first ex. Aa

  2. it always expresses dominant allele

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possible allele combos

AA, aa, Aa

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AA

homozygous dominant (purebred)

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aa

homozygous recessive (purebred)

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Aa

heterozygous (hybrid)

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what do genotypes determine

phenotypes

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phenotypes

physical trait that is expressed (what we see)

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when homozygous dominant

dominant trait expressed

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when homozygous recessive

recessive trait expressed

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when heterozygous

dominant trait expressed

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Autosome

any chromosome that isn’t a sex chromosome

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Sex chromosomes

determines an organism’s biological sex

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karyotype

map showing all of an organism’s chromosomes

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which pairs on karyotypes are autosomes

pairs 1-22

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which pairs on karyotypes are sex chromosomes

pair 23

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types of sex chromosomes

x and y

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cell that carries only x

egg cells

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cell that carries x or y

sperm cell

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what determines sex of a child

chromosome carried by the sperm cell (x or y)

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What is an autosomal genetic disorder

an inherited genetic disorder due to a genetic mutation on an autosome

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sex-linked genetic disorder

an inherited genetic disorder due to genetic mutation on the x or y chromosome

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what are sex linked traits

traits located on the sex chromosomes

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what is the most common sex-linked trait

x-linked (carried on the x)

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why are x-linked traits more common

because the x chromosome is larger than the y chromosome

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which allele is written uppercase

dominant allele

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which allele is written lowercase

recessive allele

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what is the genotype for 2 dominant allele

homozygous dominant

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what is the genotype for 2 recessive alleles

homozygous recessive

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what is the genotype for 1 dominant and 1 recessive allele

heterozygous

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