Chapter 29 Quiz

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Industrial Revolution

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24 Terms

1

Industrial Revolution

the transition from an agrarian and handicraft economy to one dominated by industry and machine manufacturing;

global transition of the human economy towards more widespread, efficient and stable manufacturing processes that succeeded the Agricultural Revolution

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2

Agricultural Revolution

the significant increase in agricultural production in Britain between the mid-17th and late 19th centuries, leading to advancements in farming techniques and infrastructure

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3

Cottage Industry

a home-based system of manufacturing in the 18th and 19th centuries, involving small-scale production of goods such as textiles and food processing

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4

Interchangeable Parts

identical components that can be substituted for one another, enabling mass production and lower costs

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5

Eli Whitney

American inventor known for inventing the cotton gin and pioneering the use of interchangeable parts in manufacturing

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6

Capital

a theoretical work by Karl Marx which argues that once the capitalist system collapses, the working class inherits economic and political power

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7

Enclosure Movement

a movement in Britain that ended traditional rights to common land, leading to the consolidation of land ownership and increased migration to cities

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8

Trans-Siberian Railroad

the world's longest railroad, connecting both ends of Russia and facilitating transportation of raw materials and supplies

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9

James Watt

Scottish inventor who developed the steam engine in 1765, revolutionizing industry and transportation

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10

Second Industrial Revolution

a period of rapid advancement and expansion in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, marked by advancements in electricity, petroleum, chemicals, and steel production

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11

Alexander Graham Bell

Scottish-Canadian inventor known for inventing the telephone

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12

Gugliemo Marconi

Italian inventor and engineer famous for creating the first successful long-distance wireless telegraph and radio broadcasting

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13

Transcontinental Railroad

a railroad route completed in 1869, connecting the east and west coasts of the United States

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14

Zaibatsu

financial cliques or family enterprises in 19th century Japan that rose to prominence during the Meiji Era and controlled significant parts of the Japanese economy

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15

Monopoly

the exclusive possession or control of the supply or trade of a commodity or service

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16

Adam Smith

Scottish philosopher considered the father of capitalism, who said that laws of supply and demand determine what happens in the marketplace; introduced the concept that free trade would benefit individuals and society as a whole.

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17

adam smith’s political theory

a form of libertarianism emphasizing the protection of private property and limited regulations on banks and lending

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18

Capitalism

an economic system characterized by private ownership of the means of production and the pursuit of profit

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19

Communist Manifesto

a work by Karl Marx and Frederick Engels that advocates for a socialist revolution and the abolition of private property

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20

Urbanization

the movement of populations from rural to urban areas

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21

Luddites

early 19th century artisans who opposed industrialization and destroyed textile machines that threatened their livelihoods

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22

Bourgeoisie

the middle class in modern industrial society, characterized by ownership of wealth and means of production

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23

Proletariat

the urban working class in a modern industrial society, who rely on selling their labor for wages

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24

Trade unions/unionization

labor unions formed to protect workers' rights and improve working conditions through collective bargaining with employers.

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