Mythology: Timeless Tales of Gods and Heroes, by Edith Hamilton

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Mt. Olympus

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English

9th

Important terms from the book Mythology

172 Terms

1

Mt. Olympus

the abode of the gods and the site of the throne of Zeus

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2

nectar and ambrosia

the food and drink of the gods

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3

Oracle at Delphi

an ancient religious sanctuary dedicated to the Greek god Apollo

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4

Zeus (Jupiter)

the almighty god of the sky and thunder, and king of all the gods

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5

Poseidon (Neptune)

God of the sea, storms, earthquakes, and horses

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6

Hades (Pluto)

god of the underworld

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7

Hestia (Vesta)

the goddess of the hearth

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8

Hera (Juno)

The goddess of women, marriage, and childbirth

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9

Ares (Mars)

god of war

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10

Athena (Minerva)

the goddess of handicrafts, the professions, the arts, and, later, war

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11

Phoebus Apollo

god of sun, medicine, music, poetry, and sciences

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12

Aphrodite (Venus)

goddess of sexual love and beauty

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13

Hermes (Mercury)

god of translators and interpreters

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14

Artemis (Diana)

goddess of wild animals, the hunt, and vegetation and of chastity and childbirth

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15

Hephaestus (Vulcan)

god of blacksmiths, metalworking, carpenters, craftsmen, artisans, sculptors, metallurgy, fire, and volcanoes

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16

The Graces

three daughters of Zeus, each of whom is described as being able to bestow a particular gift on humanity

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17

The Muses

the inspirational goddesses of literature, science, and the arts

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18

Erebus

the personification of darkness and one of the primordial deities

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19

Tartarus

the deep abyss that is used as a dungeon of torment

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20

Charon

the ferryman of Hades

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21

Cerberus

the hound of Hades

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22

Elysian Fields

the paradise to which heroes on whom the gods conferred immortality were sent

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23

Styx

a river that forms the boundary between Earth and the Underworld

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24

The Erinyes (The Furies)

three goddesses of vengeance and retribution who punished men for crimes against the natural order

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25

Pan

the god of the wild, shepherds and flocks, rustic music and impromptus, and companion of the nymphs

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26

The Satyrs

rustic fertility spirits of the countryside and wilds

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27

Aeolus

the divine keeper of the winds and king of the mythical, floating island of Aeolia

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28

The Centaurs

half-men and half-horse beings representing an intermediate stage between human civilization and nature

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29

The Gorgons

three sisters who are described as having hair made of living, venomous snakes and horrifying visages that turned those who beheld them to stone

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30

The Graiae

three sisters who shared one eye and one tooth among them

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31

The Sirens

humanlike beings with alluring voices

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32

The Fates

the personifications of destiny

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33

Demeter (Ceres)

goddess of the harvest

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34

Persephone

the goddess queen of the underworld

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35

pomegranate seed

used to trick Persephone into returning to the underworld for a few months of every year

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36

Dionysus (Bacchus)

the god of wine and pleasure

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37

Zeus and Semele

Zeus had already promised to grant Semele her every wish and thus was forced to grant a wish that would kill her: the splendor of his firebolts, as god of thunder, destroyed Semele. Zeus saved their unborn child, Dionysus, from the womb and kept him in his thigh until the baby was ready to be born.

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38

Maenads

followers of the wine god Dionysus

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39

Chaos

the mythological void state preceding the creation of the universe

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40

Night (Nyx)

Greek goddess and the personification of the night

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41

Erebus

the personification of darkness

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42

Love

Eros was the god of love and sexual desire

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43

Gaea (Earth)

personification of the Earth as a goddess

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44

Ouranos (Heaven)

the primordial god of the sky

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45

Cyclopes

one-eyed giants

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46

Titans

six elder gods

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47

Cronus

the leader and youngest of the first generation of Titans

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48

Rhea

fertility goddess in ancient Greek mythology; wife of Cronus and mother of Zeus; identified with Roman Ops and Cybele of ancient Asia Minor

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49

The Giants

a race of great strength and aggression

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50

Atlas

a Titan condemned to hold up the heavens or sky for eternity

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51

The Hyperboreans

a mythical people who lived in the far northern part of the known world

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52

Prometheus

stole fire, he was celebrated by the mortals and was cruelly punished by God Zeus

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53

Epimetheus

the Titan god of afterthought and excuses

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54

Pandora

the first woman, but —as an instrument of the wrath of Zeus— was held responsible for releasing the ills of humanity into the world

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55

The Deluge

a myth in which a great flood destroys civilization

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56

Deucalion

the Greek equivalent of Noah

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57

Pyrrha

wife of Deucalion

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58

Io

a maiden seduced by Zeus; when Hera was about to discover them together Zeus turned her into a white heifer

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59

Europa

The beauty of Europa inspired the love of Zeus, who approached her in the form of a white bull and carried her away from Phoenicia to Crete.

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60

Polyphemus

loved Galatea, a Sicilian Nereid, and killed her lover Acis

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61

Narcissus

He rejected all romantic advances, eventually falling in love with his own reflection in a pool of water, staring at it for the remainder of his life.

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62

Echo

offended the goddess Hera by keeping her in conversation, thus preventing her from spying on one of Zeus' amours

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63

Cupid

the god of desire, erotic love, attraction and affection

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64

Psyche

goddess of the soul

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65

Pyramus

lived in Babylon, and was the lover of Thisbe, both living in connected houses, but being forbidden to marry by their parents, who were rivals

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66

Thisbe

returned and found her lover mortally wounded under the mulberry tree, she put an end to her own life

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67

Orpheus

a great musician; when his wife Eurydice died he went to Hades to get her back but failed

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68

Eurydice

the wife of Orpheus

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69

Pygmalion

a sculptor who fell in love with a statue he had carved

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70

Galatea

a maiden who was first a sculpture created by Pygmalion and was brought to life by Aphrodite in answer to Pygmalion's prayers

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71

Baucis

hospitably received Zeus and Hermes when their richer neighbors turned away

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72

Philemon

a simple countryman who offered hospitality to Zeus and Hermes when they came to earth without revealing their identities in order to test people's piety

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73

Endymion

a beautiful youth who spent much of his life in perpetual sleep

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74

Selene

the goddess and the personification of the Moon

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75

Daphne

the personification of the laurel

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76

The Argo

a ship built with the help of the gods that Jason and the Argonauts sailed from Iolcos to Colchis to retrieve the Golden Fleece

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77

Phrixus

the son of Athamas carried ashore to the Colchians by the ram

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78

Helle

fell from the ram's back and was drowned in the strait called, after her, Hellespont

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79

Pelias

the one who sent Jason on the quest for the Golden Fleece

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80

Jason

the husband of Medea and leader of the Argonauts who sailed in quest of the Golden Fleece

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81

Harpies

a half-human and half-bird personification of storm winds

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82

Amazons

a race of warlike women noted for their riding skills, courage, and pride

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83

The Symplegades

a pair of rocks at the Bosphorus that clashed together whenever a vessel went through

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84

Medea

a princess of Colchis who aided Jason in taking the Golden Fleece from her father

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85

King Æetes

King of Colchis and keeper of the golden fleece

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86

Scylla

a supernatural female creature, with 12 feet and six heads on long snaky necks

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87

Charybdis

a ship-devouring whirlpool lying on the other side of a narrow strait from Scylla

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88

Phaethon

youthful son of Helius who begged his father let him drive the chariot of the sun

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89

Helios

the god and personification of the Sun

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90

Pegasus

a winged divine stallion

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91

Bellerophon

a mythical hero of Corinth who performed miracles on the winged horse Pegasus

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92

Chimaera

a monstrous fire-breathing hybrid creature

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93

Daedalus

an Athenian inventor who built the labyrinth of Minos; to escape the labyrinth he fashioned wings for himself and his son Icarus

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94

Icarus

son of Daedalus; while escaping from Crete with his father he flew too close to the sun and the wax melted and he fell into the Aegean and drowned

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95

King Minos

made King Aegeus pick seven young boys and seven young girls to be sent to Daedalus's creation, the labyrinth, to be eaten by the Minotaur

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96

Perseus

the slayer of the Gorgon Medusa and the rescuer of Andromeda from a sea monster

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97

Danaë

mother of the hero Perseus

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98

Polydectes

command the hero Perseus to obtain the head of Medusa

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99

Medusa

the only mortal of the three Gorgons

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100

Andromeda

beautiful daughter of King Cepheus and Queen Cassiope and wife of Perseus

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