Chapter 8 Perusall

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Industrial Revolution

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US History

22 Terms

1

Industrial Revolution

The shift of American economy from an old subsistence world to a new more-commercial nation.

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2

Market Revolution

Americans integrated the technologies of the Industrial Revolution, such as steam power, which fueled the rise of American industry by powering mills and sparking new national transportation networks.

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3

middle class

ballooned during the Market Revolution in which men and women worked in the cash economy and were freed from the bound dependence of servitude

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4

panics

economic crisis or depressions caused by financial disturbances

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5

Transportation Revolution

began with improved road networks and soon incorporated even greater improvements in the ways people and good moved across the landscape; opened the vast lands west of the Appalachian Mountains

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6

Erie Canal

completed in 1825; 350-mile-long human-made waterway which linked the Great Lakes with the Hudson River and the Atlantic Ocean; launched a canal-building boom

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7

steamboat

Robert Fulton established the first commercial _________ service up and down the Hudson River in New York in 1807; turned St. Louis and Cincinati into centers of trade

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8

railroads

became the most visible embodiment of corporate capitalism; by 1860 Americans had laid more than thirty thousand miles of _________ and few cotton planters struggle to transport their products to textile mills in the Northeast and in England

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9

telegraphs

In 1843 Samuel Morse persuaded Congress to fund a forty-mile ______________; carried news of battlefield events to eastern newspapers within days; redefined the limits of human communication

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10

incorporation

protected the fortunes and liabilities pf entrepreneurs who invested in early industrial endeavors; been designed to confer privileges to organizations embarking on expensive projects explicitly for the public good

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11

gradual abolition

brought emancipation while also defending the interests of northern masters and controlling still another generation of black Americans

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12

manumission

the release from slavery

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13

cotton gin

a simple hand-cranked device designed to mechanically remove sticky green seeds from short staple cotton; allowed southern planters to dramatically expand cotton production for the national and international markets

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14

putting-out system

merchants or investors sent materials to individuals and families to complete at home; these independent laborers then turn over the partially finished goods to the owner to be given to another laborer to finish

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15

Waltham-Lowell System

created the textile mill that defined antebellum New England and American industrialism before the Civil War; centralized the process of textile manufacturing under one roof.

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16

separate spheres

set the public realm and displayed a distinct class bias; the husband alone was responsible for creating wealth and engaging in the commerce of politics (public), while the wife was responsible for keeping a good home, being careful with the household expenses, and raising children

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17

companionate marriage

under the influence of Enlightenment thought, young people began to privilege character and compatibility in their potential partners

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18

Irish immigration

In England, Parliament began revoking common land rights for these farmers: these policies targeted Catholics in the southern counties of Ireland and motivated many to seek greater opportunity elsewhere; the booming American economy pulled these immigrants toward ports along the eastern US

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19

German Triangle

immigrants that migrated to the Old Northwest to farm in rural areas and practiced trades in growing communities such as St. Louis, Cincinnati, and Milwaukee

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20

nativism

the sudden influx of immigration triggered backlash among many native-born Anglo-Protestant Americans who feared the growing Catholic presence; this movement sought to limit European immigration and prevent Catholics from establishing churches and other institutions

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21

Know-Nothing Party

also known as the American Party; spawned from nativism; found success in local and state elections throughout the North; reflected widespread anti-Catholic and anti-immigrant sentiment, which slowed European immigration

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22

antebellum unions

organized to assert themselves and win both the respect and the resources due to a breadwinner and a citizen; enflamed a dangerous antagonism between employers and employees; worked to protect economic power of their members by creating closed shops and striking to improve working conditions

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