Honors US History Chapter 7 Test for 12/7/22

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Wilmot Proviso

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37 Terms

1

Wilmot Proviso

proposed by David Wilmot (PA-Dem.) in 1846 to be added to a bill concerning Mexico. It stated that "neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall ever exist in any part of the territory that was acquired from Mexico

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2

Compromise of 1850

Proposed by Henry Clay:

  • California admitted as a free state

  • People of the NM & UT use popular sovereignty

  • Stricter fugitive slave act: fines or imprisonment

  • Slaves remained in Washington D.C. but the trade was banned there

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3

Fugitive Slave Act

(1850) a law that made it a crime to help runaway slaves; allowed for the arrest of escaped slaves in areas where slavery was illegal and required their return to slave owners

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4

Underground Railroad

a system of secret routes used by escaping slaves to reach freedom in the North or in Canada

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5

Harriet Tubman

American abolitionist from Maryland who was an escaped slave who helped over 300 slaves reach the north

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6

Attack on Charles Sumner

Radical Republican against the slave power who insults Andrew Butler and subsequently gets beaten by Preston Brooks' cane

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7

Dred Scott v. Sanford

1857 Supreme Court decision that stated slaves were not citizens: slaves were property no matter where they were living and the Missouri Compromise unconstitutional

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8

John Brown

self-proclaimed antislavery messiah who led his men, including 4 sons, to a pro-slavery settlement on the Pottawatomie Creek. He dragged 5 men from their beds & murdered them, splitting open their skulls

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9

Election of 1860

Lincoln, the Republican candidate, won because the Democratic party was split over slavery. John C. Breckinridge was the Democratic choice. As a result, the South no longer felt like it had a voice in politics and a number of states seceded from the Union.

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10

Advantages/Disadvantages of North & South

North: -rail roads

  • manufacturing industry

  • more population

South:

  • strong generals

  • knew the land

  • plantation industry

  • great military experience

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11

Winfield Scott and the Anaconda Plan

a plan for the Civil War proposed by Winfield Scott who was Union general-in-chief. It emphasized the blockade of Southern ports and called for an advance down the Mississippi River to cut the south in two.

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12

Border States importance for Families

siblings fighting siblings

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13

Start Date of the Civil War

April 12, 1861

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14

End Date of the Civil War

April 9, 1865

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15

The first Battle of Bull Run

first major battle of the Civil War

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16

David Farragut

Union naval commander who captured New Orleans

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17

Peninsula Campaign (1862)

Union's General George McClellan failed to seize Richmond, the Confederate Capital; Confederate victory made possible by the leadership of General Robert E. Lee

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18

Lincoln & McClellan's relationship

Lincoln and McClellan constantly clashed as McClellan continually ignored Lincoln's orders

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19

Lincoln's goal throughout the Civil War

to preserve and keep the Union together

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20

Emancipation Proclamation

declared that all slaves in the Confederate states would be free

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21

Massachusetts 54th Regiment

First black regiment in the US Armed Forces. Earned a place in history because of their Fort Wagner, where they lost most of their men.

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22

Copperheads

Northern Democrats who favored peace with the South and opposed abolition

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23

Battle of Fredericksburg

The battle was fought on the banks of the Rappahannock River. The Union, led by Major General Ambrose Burnside, was defeated and lost 12,000 men. General Robert E. Lee, Commander of the Army of Northern Virginia, was the Confederate general who led in the defeat.

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24

Battle of Gettysburg

Turning point of the War that made it clear the North would win. 50,000 people died, and the South lost its chance to invade the North. Robert E. Lee fought against George Meade of the Union. The battle took place July 1-3, 1863.

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25

Importance of Gettysburg and Vicksburg

The Battle of Gettysburg ended the Confederates' last major invasion of the North and is viewed by some as the war's turning point. The Confederate loss of Vicksburg was perhaps more important because it opened the way for the North to seize control of the entire Mississippi River, cutting the Confederacy in half.

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26

Greatest killer of the Civil War

disease

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27

Appomattox Court House

famous site of the surrender of the Confederate Army under Robert E. Lee to Union commander Ulysses S. Grant

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28

Matthew Brady

Irish-American photographer who documented the American Civil War

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29

13th Amendment

abolished slavery

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30

14th Amendment

declares that anyone born in the U.S. is a citizen and everyone is given equal protection of the laws

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31

15th Amendment

all men can vote

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32

Land Grant College Act of 1862

provided thousands of acres of federal land to each state to build Agricultural and Mechanical universities

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33

Gilded Age

the reconstruction era following the Civil War

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34

Military Strategy of North & South

Invade, occupy, and subjugate the south. The south was to wear down the north's will to win. In the latter half of the war, the North had to go in and use total war and break their will to stay involved. The South's later strategy was to last to the Election of 1864.

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35

Union Conscription Law

  • All men b/t 20-45 liable for service in the national forces for a term of 3 years

  • Service could be avoided by payment of $300 or by finding a substitute to enlist for 3 years

  • Reason the law was passed--volunteer enlistments had dropped to an unacceptable level

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36

Confederate Conscription Laws

  • April, 1862—Confederacy passed a draft law requiring 3 years of military service for white men b/t the ages of 18-35

  • This automatically extended the service of volunteers for 2 more years

  • After Antietam—age extended to 45 & then to 50

  • Owners of 20 or more slaves were excused from serving

  • Service could be avoided by payment of $500 or by finding a substitute who was not of draft age to enlist

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37

Significance for key events/battles of the Civil War

Fort Sumter started the war. Antietam was the bloodiest one day battle. Gettysburg was the turning point of the war when the Confederacy realized they couldn't win the war. Hampton Roads was the first battle between two iron-clad ships. Appomattox Court House was the location of the surrendering of the Confederates and Robert E. Lee.

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