WHAP Unit 1

studied byStudied by 92 people
5.0(1)
get a hint
hint

What was the Song Dynasty?

1 / 207

Tags and Description

208 Terms

1

What was the Song Dynasty?

The Chinese dynasty that followed the Tang dynasty, it was smaller but flourished more due to technological advances and smaller amount of land to govern

New cards
2

What is a meritocracy?

A government system in which leaders and officials are selected based on their skill and abilities rather than being born into power- they have to earn it

New cards
3

How was the Chinese imperial bureaucracy a meritocracy?

The civil service exam was open to the lower economic classes as well, so someone who came from a lower economic class could earn a high position through knowledge of Confucian texts

New cards
4

How did the size of the bureaucracy hurt the Song dynasty?

Due to the high wages paid to bureaucrats, the surplus wealth was drained to pay the growing number of officials.

New cards
5

What was the Grand Canal and what effects did it have?

An efficient Chinese waterway transportation system that improved the economy through better trade

New cards
6

What was gunpowder used for and how did it spread?

Guns were created from gunpowder, which spread through trade on the Silk Roads

New cards
7

What food source was used to increase agricultural production in China?

Champa rice allowed agricultural production in more places and more often

New cards
8

What other methods of agricultural production increased success in China?

use of manure as fertilizer, effective irrigation systems, heavy plows

New cards
9

How did an abundance of food affect the Chinese population?

The population increased to about 40% of the world's population

New cards
10

The discovery of what resource contributed to Chinese cast iron production?

coal (black earth)

New cards
11

How did the manufacture of steel affect China?

It was used in agricultural tools, religious artifacts, and architecture (bridges, gates, etc)

New cards
12

What is protoindustrialization?

economic changes where people made more goods than they could sell

New cards
13

How was protoindustrialization different than later industrialization?

Instead of large factories, communal or home based simple equipment was used

New cards
14

What products were manufactured by Chinese artisans?

porcelain, silk, and steel

New cards
15

What maritime navigation advances were used by the Chinese?

compass and paper navigation charts

New cards
16

How did the Song Dynasty carry out public projects?

paid people to do labor instead of requiring it

New cards
17

What was the tributary system used by the Song Dynasty?

surrounding states had to pay tribute to China, which was considered the "Middle Kingdom", to honor its emperor

New cards
18

How did people from tributary states show respect for the Chinese emperor?

performing the kowtow (bow in which head touches floor)

New cards
19

How did population distributions change in China?

Though mostly rural, transition to greater concentration of urban cities

New cards
20

What new social class was created due to bureaucratic expansion in China?

scholar gentry- below aristocracy and made of those educated in Confucian ideals

New cards
21

What 3 classes ranked below the scholar gentry?

farmers, artisans, merchants (merchants ranked lower due to Confucian ideals about hard work and creating things)

New cards
22

What were the lowest Chinese social classes?

peasants and urban poor- Song dynasty offered free aid

New cards
23

What were Confucian beliefs about women?

should be respected but defer to men

New cards
24

What practice was used to constrain the movement of women in China?

foot binding, which was also a sign of status

New cards
25

What system of printing was used by the Chinese? How was it used?

woodblock printing, used to create agricultural pamphlets

New cards
26

How did the use of paper and printing affect access to literature in China?

the literate scholar gentry began to consume more literature- made more well rounded bureaucrats

New cards
27

How did Buddhism come to China? How was it presented to the Chinese?

Came from India, presented through similarities to Daoism

New cards
28

What are the three main branches of Buddhism and their focuses?

Theravada Buddhism: focus on personal spiritual growth and self discipline Mahayana Buddhism: focus on spiritual growth for all beings and service Tibetan Buddhism: focus on chanting

New cards
29

What are the main beliefs of Buddhism?

Four Noble Truths and Eightfold Path

New cards
30

What is a syncretic religion?

religion that blends several beliefs or practices

New cards
31

What was the syncretic form of Buddhism that developed in China?

Chan/Zen Buddhism

New cards
32

How did the Tang Dynasty view Buddhism?

not accepted because it was considered a foreign religion, made Daoists and Confucians jealous

New cards
33

How did the Song Dynasty view Buddhism?

tolerated, but promoted Chinese religions such as Daoism or Confucianism

New cards
34

What is filial piety?

duty to respect the male head of family and rulers

New cards
35

What was Neo-Confucianism?

another syncretic system that focused on ethics, combined Daoism and Buddhism with Confucianism

New cards
36

What is sinification?

influence of Chinese culture

New cards
37

How did Chinese culture affect Japan?

Buddhism and Confucianism, woodblock printing, Heian period (able to control interactions more due to separation by water

New cards
38

How did Japanese feudalism work?

daimyo conflicted for control of land while rest of population was rice farmers, samurai fought for daimyo, little social mobility

New cards
39

What was bushido?

samurai code of conduct, included martial arts, frugality

New cards
40

How was Japan governed?

had an emperor and shogun but overwhelmed by regional rivalries, emperor was mostly symbolic

New cards
41

How did Korea respond to Chinese culture?

emulated many aspects of Chinese culture, centralized government, religion, writing system

New cards
42

How did Korea differ from China?

Aristocracy was more powerful, so the meritocracy was never open to lower classes

New cards
43

How did Vietnamese culture differ from Chinese culture?

it focused on the nuclear family, had more gender equality, and scholar bureaucrats were more loyal to the peasants than the emperor

New cards
44

What parts of Chinese culture did the Vietnamese resent?

The idea of polygyny, foot binding, women's status in China

New cards
45

Who were the Mamluks?

Turkic slaves brought to Egypt who were given more upward mobility than most slaves and took control of the government to establish the Mamluk Sultanate, which prospered through trading cotton and sugar

New cards
46

What economy did the Mamluks have?

Cotton and sugar trade

New cards
47

How did the Seljuk Turks challenge the power of the Abbasids?

They expanded across the Middle East and called their leader the sultan, lowering the power of the Abbasid leader

New cards
48

What group was organized to reopen access to holy sites around Jerusalem?

the Crusaders

New cards
49

What Central Asian group posed a challenge to the Abbasids?

the Mongols

New cards
50

What change caused the Abbasids to lose economic power?

shifting of trade routes north of Baghdad, which meant that Baghdad was no longer the center of trade

New cards
51

What Islamic caliphate was led by Arabs and Persians?

The Abbasid caliphate

New cards
52

Which Islamic states had their roots in Turkic culture?

Ottoman Empire, Safavid Empire, and Mughal Empire

New cards
53

How did Islamic scholars preserve earlier works?

translated Greek literature to Arabic, studied mathematics from India, and paper making from China

New cards
54

Who was Nasir al-Din al-Tusi?

Islamic scholar who made contributions to several fields, built an accurate and advanced observatory, and developed the foundations of trigonometry

New cards
55

Who was Ibn Khaldun?

founder of historiography and sociology

New cards
56

Who was 'A'ishah al-Ba'uniyyah?

Sufi mystic and poet who was the biggest female Muslim writer before the 20th century

New cards
57

What is the difference between the main form of Islam and Sufism?

rather than a focus on intellectual discovery, Sufism focused on introspection for discoveries unable to be made through learning

New cards
58

How were Sufis good missionaries?

They adapted Islam to regional religions; in a way, they showed people how to practice Islam without giving up their traditions

New cards
59

How were merchants viewed in Islamic society?

They were more highly respected than in other societies as long as they adhered to certain practices, partly because Muhammad was a merchant

New cards
60

What were Islamic rules about slavery?

Slavery was allowed as long as Muslims and other monotheists (Christians, Jews, etc.) were not enslaved. Many slaves converted to Islam, at which point they were released.

New cards
61

What role did female Islamic slaves have?

They had more freedoms than most women and were given opportunities to make money, eventually buying their freedom

New cards
62

What practices now associated with Islam were present in Central Asia before Muhammad?

The use of hijab for women and skull coverings for men, as well as allowing women to study or read when not in the presence of men

New cards
63

How did Muhammad change the status of women?

ruled that dowries must be paid to the bride, forbade female infanticide, had a wife who was also educated, setting precedent for recognition of women's abilities

New cards
64

How did the status of women in Islam compare to that of women in other religions?

Muslim women had more freedoms and could inherit property, remarry if widowed, initiate divorce in some cases, use birth control, and had protections to testify in court

New cards
65

What Islamic caliphate had power in Spain after losing power in the Middle East?

the Umayyad caliphate

New cards
66

What was the Umayyad capital of Spain?

Cordoba

New cards
67

What was the Battle of Tours?

a battle lost by Islamic forces to the Frankish forces, limiting their expansion into Europe

New cards
68

How did the Umayyads create an environment for success in Cordoba?

had religious tolerance and promoted trade so that goods could enter Europe through Spain

New cards
69

What ships were used for trade with Spain?

dhows, which had long thin hulls that make transport of goods easier

New cards
70

How was al-Andalus a center of learning?

Cordoba had the largest library in the world and was home to many influential scholars such as Ibn Rushd (Averroes)

New cards
71

What is an example of how Muslims, Christians, and Jews influenced each other academically in Spain?

Ibn Rushd's thoughts on Aristotle influenced the Jewish philosopher Maimonides, who influenced Thomas Aquinas, a Christian philosopher

New cards
72

What served to unify South Asia culturally?

Hinduism

New cards
73

How did Southern India's political structure differ from Northern India?

Southern India had more centralization with the Chola Dynasty and the Vijayanagara Empire in comparison to the decentralized Rajput kingdoms of Northern India

New cards
74

What was the first kingdom to rule over Southern India?

Chola Dynasty

New cards
75

What was the second kingdom to rule over Southern India?

Vijayanagara Empire

New cards
76

How was the Vijayanagara Empire created?

two brothers from the Islamic Delhi Sultanate returned to their religion of birth and established their own kingdom

New cards
77

What states ruled over Northern India after the fall of the Gupta Empire?

Rajput kingdoms

New cards
78

How did the geography around India affect invasions?

The Himalayas prevented invasions from the north or east, but mountain passes allowed invasion from the northwest.

New cards
79

How did Islamic presence in Northern India grow?

The first invasions from Muslims into Pakistan had little effect on daily life, but later on, Muslim invaders took riches from places of worship for Hinduism and Buddhism and built mosques on their holy sites

New cards
80

What Islamic state ruled over Northern India?

Delhi Sultanate

New cards
81

What two religions' conflicts dominated Northern Indian political history?

Hinduism and Islam

New cards
82

What made it difficult for the Delhi Sultanate to remain in control?

lack of an efficient bureaucracy allowed the Rajput princes to continue to exert influence

New cards
83

What prevented the Delhi Sultanate from expanding southward?

Having to defend against the Mongols and Mughals from the north

New cards
84

What religions dominated South Asia before the arrival of Islam?

Hinduism and some Buddhism

New cards
85

What are the 4 main differences between Islam and Hinduism?

Islam: monotheistic, does not allow visual representations of Allah, only one holy book (the Quran), and all believers considered equal Hinduism: polytheistic, has many representations of its gods, several holy texts, and a caste system

New cards
86

What is a universalizing religion?

A religion that tries to proselytize, or actively recruit converts

New cards
87

What did Muslims do at first in hopes of getting converts? How did this change?

They initially tried to use force, then relied on those who converted voluntarily

New cards
88

What groups were attracted to Islam?

lower caste Hindus who wanted a better position in life and Buddhists who were disheartened by the lack of organization in their religion

New cards
89

How did societal structure change in South Asia with the arrival of Islam?

It wasn't really affected because Muslims often found a place within the caste system

New cards
90

How did Islam vary itself to gain believers?

It would follow the customs of the state it was in, for example, the gender relations of South Asia confined Islamic women to a separate social sphere just as it was done before their arrival. In SE Asia, where women had more independence, Islamic women were also given more freedom

New cards
91

What intellectual and cultural interactions occurred between South Asia and the Middle East?

shared knowledge such as the sharing of mathematical and astronomical discoveries, Arabic numerals actually came from South Asia

New cards
92

What was architecture like in India?

blended Islamic geometric patterns with Hindu artistic details

New cards
93

What is the Qutub Minar and why was it built?

a large leaning tower constructed over a mosque by the Delhi Sultanate

New cards
94

What new language was developed among South Asian Muslims?

Urdu, which mixed grammar from Hindi with vocabulary from Arabic and some elements of Farsi

New cards
95

What was the Bhakti movement? Why did it appeal to many?

Similar to Sufism of Islam, a mystical Hindu movement that focused on developing a relationship with a specific god. Was popular because it did not discriminate against women or people with low social status

New cards
96

How were Sufis and Bhaktis similar?

both were mystical movements that were also good missionaries due to their ability to adapt their religion to other cultures

New cards
97

How did South Asia interact with SE Asia?

merchants exchanged culture when they came to trade, spread Buddhism and Hinduism to SE Asia

New cards
98

What two sea based kingdoms emerged in SE Asia?

Srivijaya Empire: Hindu kingdom with strong navy, economy based on charging other ships for travel between India and China Majapahit Kingdom: Buddhist kingdom that also relied on control of sea routes

New cards
99

What were the Sinhala dynasties?

Land based dynasties that were a center for Buddhism and a monastic life, used good irrigation system to boost economy

New cards
100

What was the Khmer Empire? How did its economy work?

Empire with good irrigation and drainage, allowing it agricultural success and better withstanding of monsoons.

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 25 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 97 people
Updated ... ago
4.5 Stars(4)
note Note
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 27 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 296 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard22 terms
studied byStudied by 15 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard62 terms
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard108 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard91 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard44 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard29 terms
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard31 terms
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard20 terms
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)