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What was the agricultural revolution?
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when humans settled down into farming villages
What is the caste system?
What was the Rig Veda?
base of new religious books
What were the Vedas?
Hinduism teachings compiled
What were the Upanishads?
commentaries and reflections on the Vedas
What is Varna?
the social class within the caste system
What is a jati?
What is an atman?
a persons soul
How did people challenge the old order?
meditation, yoga, and fasting
Why did people meditate?
wanted to achieve enlightenment
Who were the Brahmins?
Who were the Kshatriyas?
Who were the Vaishyas?
farmers, traders, and merchants
Who were the Shudras?
Who were the untouchables?
What was Jainism?
respectful and non-violence group of people
who was the leader of Jainism?
What is extreme asceticism?
devoting life to religion
Who was Siddhartha Gautama?
Founder of Buddhism
How did Buddhism start?
the Buddha wanted to find a cure to suffering
What did he preach?
middle path to true happiness
what was the first noble truth?
life is suffering
what was the second noble truth?
suffering comes from desire
what was the third noble truth?
so solve suffering, curb desire
what was the fourth noble truth?
to curb desire, follow the eightfold path
How did Buddhism spread?
his ashes were spread everywhere
What are stupas?
What are Bodhisattvas?
already reached nirvana but teach instead
What are the two types of Buddhism?
Theravada and Mahayana
What was Theravada Buddhism?
What was Mahayana Buddhism?
popular modern Buddhism
What was the Bhakti movement?
made to make Hinduism more popular
Why was the Bhakti Movement popular?
you could worship any god you wanted to
How did big cities progress civilization?
people could do more unique jobs plus trade
what impact did the big cities have on the environment?
used up resources
What was Confucianism?
code of relationships based on honor
Why was Confucianism created?
too much chaos
How was Confucianism special?
anyone could be political leader with the right morals
What was Daoism?
live in harmony with nature
How was Judaism spread?
What was Islam?
religion based on the teachings of Muhammed
Who was the leader of Islam?
How was trade important?
connected civilizations that would react otherwise
What was important about the Song Dynasty?
brought a ton of people to China
What role did women play during the song dynasty?
had to sit there and be pretty, lots of restrictions
How was Korea like and unlike China?
restricted women, own alphabet
How was Japan like and unlike China?
same culture, different government
How was Vietnam like and unlike China?
same government, different language
What was the most productive region in China?
Yangtze river valley
Why was China special?
What is fileal piety?
respect for elders
What was the Mandate of Heaven?
divine right to rule
What was China's most important resources?
agriculture and labor
What was special about mayan cilivizations?
apartments and collected tribute
What are Chinampas?
artificial farming land
Were the Mayans unified?
no, divided into city-states
What did the Mayans military do?
leaders- sacrifice and commoners - labor
what were the three layers of the Mayan cosmos?
heavens, human world, underworld
What were the Mayans advanced in?
math, calendar, and writing
How was the aztec government unique?
king chosen by rich families
What was special about the Andean civilizations?
large variety of environments
What are Khipus?
knotted cords for record keeping
What are Ayllus?
What is a Mit'a?
work for 1 year, done for 7
What did the Inca do to small villages?
conquered them and kidnapped the heirs
What did the city of Cuzco sacrifice?
textiles, animals, and some humans
What kind of advancements did the Inca have?
Gold and silver, weaving, and tech
what was aryan society?
what was dharma?
religious morals and teachings for individual
what is moksha?
what made the song dynasty grow?
advancements in farming
what were captured slaves useful for?
Where was the incan civilization?
Who did the American civilizations all worship?
sun and moon god
What was the capital city of the Aztec?
What was Sufism?
wanted personal connection, Ali was not slay
What was Shi'ism?
Belief that Ali was the right successor
Which religion do Mosque's relate to?
Did Hinduism spread?
What is a caliph
successor to the prophet
What are slavic people?
Ukrainian and Eastern Russia ppl
What divided Western Europe?
What divided the two christan religions?
EOC didn't want to show of Jesus, RCC did