Chapter 10: Motivation and Emotion

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Psychologist Abraham Maslow

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66 Terms

1

Psychologist Abraham Maslow

________ pointed out that not all needs are created equal.

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2

Plateau phase

________- Respiration and heart rate continue at an elevated level, genitals secrete fluids in preparation for coitus.

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3

Thomas Holmes

Psychologists ________ and Richard Rahe designed one of the first instruments to measure stress.

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4

Incentives

________ are stimuli that we are drawn to due to learning.

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5

Respiration

________ and heart rate return to normal resting states, male systems experience a refractory period- a time period that must elapse before another orgasm.

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6

Self actualization

________, a need to fulfill our unique potential as a person.

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7

Psychologists

________ study stress not only to further our understanding of motivation and emotion but also to help us with problems caused by stress.

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8

Humans

________ (and some other animals) seem to be motivated to figure out our world and master skills, sometimes regardless of the benefits of the skills or knowledge.

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9

drive

A(n) ________ is our impulse to act in a way that satisfies this need.

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10

Metabolic

________ rate- how quickly our body uses energy.

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11

Garcia

The ________ effect, in particular, can drastically affect what foods make us hungry.

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12

parasympathetic nervous system

The ________ returns our physiological state to normal.

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13

Orgasm

________- Rhythmic genital contractions that may help conception, respiration, and heart rate increase further, males ejaculate, often accompanied by a pleasurable euphoria.

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14

Initial excitement

________- Genital areas become engorged with blood, penis becomes erect, clitoris swells, respiration and heart rate increase.

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15

Bulimics

________ are obsessed with food and their weight.

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16

sympathetic nervous system

The organism readies itself to meet the challenge through activation of the ________.

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17

Intrinsic motivators

________ are rewards we get internally, such as enjoyment or satisfaction.

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18

Extrinsic motivators

________ are rewards that we get for accomplishments from outside ourselves (for example, grades, salary, and so on)

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19

Stanley Schachters two factor theory

________ explains emotional experiences in a more complete way than either the James- Lange or Cannon- Bard theories do.

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20

Achievement motivation

________ is one theory that tries to explain the motivations behind these more complex behaviors.

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21

Hans Selyes general adaptation syndrome

________ (GAS) describes the general response humans and other animals have to a stressful event.

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22

Initial excitement

Genital areas become engorged with blood, penis becomes erect, clitoris swells, respiration and heart rate increase

New cards
23

Plateau phase

Respiration and heart rate continue at an elevated level, genitals secrete fluids in preparation for coitus

New cards
24

Orgasm

Rhythmic genital contractions that may help conception, respiration, and heart rate increase further, males ejaculate, often accompanied by a pleasurable euphoria

New cards
25

Multiple approach-avoidance conflicts

In these, you must choose between two or more things, each of which has both desirable and undesirable features

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26

Perceived Control

Control over events tends to lessen stress, while a perceived lack of control generally makes the event more stressful

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27

need

is one of our requirements for survival, such as food, water, or shelter.

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28

drive

is our impulse to act in a way that satisfies this need.

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29

homeostasis

a balanced internal state.

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30

Primary drives

are biological needs, like thirst.

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31

Secondary drives

are learned drives

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32

Arousal Theory

which states that we seek an optimum level of excitement or arousal.

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33

social facilitation

We might perform well at an easy task with a very high level of arousal, but the same high level of arousal would prevent us from performing well on a difficult task (this concept is similar to

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34

opponent process

meaning a motivation to return to our baseline, neutral state.

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35

Incentives

are stimuli that we are drawn to due to learning.

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36

Abraham Maslow

pointed out that not all needs are created equal.

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37

Self-actualization

a need to fulfill our unique potential as a person.

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38

Set-point theory

describes how the hypothalamus might decide what impulse to send.

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39

Metabolic rate

how quickly our body uses energy

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40

externals

are more motivated to eat by external food cues, such as attractiveness or availability of food.

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41

internals

are less affected by the presence and presentation of food and respond more often to internal hunger cues.

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42

Garcia effect

in particular, can drastically affect what foods make us hungry.

New cards
43

Bulimia

People with bulimia eat large amounts of food in a short period of time (binging) and then get rid of the food (purging) by vomiting, excessive exercise, or the use of laxatives.

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44

Anorexia nervosa

starve themselves to below 85 percent of their normal body weight and refuse to eat due to their obsession with weight.

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45

Initial excitement

Genital areas become engorged with blood, penis becomes erect, clitoris swells, respiration and heart rate increase.

New cards
46

Plateau phase

Respiration and heart rate continue at an elevated level, genitals secrete fluids in preparation for coitus.

New cards
47

Orgasm

Rhythmic genital contractions that may help conception, respiration, and heart rate increase further, males ejaculate, often accompanied by a pleasurable euphoria.

New cards
48

Resolution phase

Respiration and heart rate return to normal resting states, male systems experience a refractory period—a time period that must elapse before another orgasm.

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49

Sexual Orientation

Studies show that gay and lesbian sexual orientation is not related to traumatic childhood experiences, parenting styles, the quality of relationships with parents, masculinity or femininity, or the sexual orientation of our parents.

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50

Achievement Motivation

is one theory that tries to explain the motivations behind these more complex behaviors.

New cards
51

Extrinsic motivators

are rewards that we get for accomplishments from outside ourselves (for example, grades, salary, and so on).

New cards
52

Intrinsic motivators

are rewards we get internally, such as enjoyment or satisfaction.

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53

approach-approach conflict

occurs when you must choose between two desirable outcomes

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54

avoidance-avoidance conflict

occurs when you must choose between two unattractive outcomes.

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55

approach-avoidance conflict

exists when one event or goal has both attractive and unattractive features.

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56

Multiple approach-avoidance conflicts

In these, you must choose between two or more things, each of which has both desirable and undesirable features.

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57

William James and Carl Lange

they theorized that we feel emotion because of biological changes caused by stress.

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58

Cannon and Philip Bard

They demonstrated that similar physiological changes correspond with drastically different emotional states.

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59

Stanley Schachter’s two-factor theory

explains emotional experiences in a more complete way than either the James-Lange or Cannon-Bard theories do.

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60

Stress

can refer to either certain life events (stressors) or how we react to these changes in the environment (stress reactions).

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61

Thomas Holmes and Richard Rahe

designed one of the first instruments to measure stress.

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62

Hans Selye’s general adaptation syndrome (GAS)

describes the general response humans and other animals have to a stressful event.

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63

Alarm reaction

Heart rate increases, blood is diverted away from other body functions to muscles needed to react.

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64

Resistance

The body remains physiologically ready (high heart rate, and so on).

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65

Exhaustion

The parasympathetic nervous system returns our physiological state to normal.

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66

Perceived Control

Control over events tends to lessen stress, while a perceived lack of control generally makes the event more stressful.

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