Chapter 20 - The Revolution in Energy and Industry

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Stable government, urbanized population, global trade empire, abundant natural resources

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42 Terms

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Stable government, urbanized population, global trade empire, abundant natural resources

Britain became the leader in the Industrial Revolution because of these factors:

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Industrial Revolution

a term first coined in 1799 to describe the burst of major inventions and economic expansion that began in Britain in the late 18th century

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Textiles/cloth

The primary product of Britain’s economy was:

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4

Industrialization

During this period, the cottage industry of production was phased in favor of:

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Spinning Jenny

a single, inexpensive, hand-powered spinning machine created by James Hargreaves in 1765

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Water Frame

a spinning machine created by Richard Arkwright that had a capacity of several hundred spindles and used waterpower; it therefore required a larger and more specialized mill - a factory

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Textiles

Britain’s economy drastically grew from their monopoly on industrialized production of:

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Power Loom

mechanized and standardized the production of textiles; invented by Edmund Cartwright in 1785, and began to fill factories after 1800

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Foundling homes

Cheap, expendable labor was supplied from:

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10

Wood

By the 1740s, this resource was no longer prevalent enough to sustain the demand for energy:

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Steam Engine

a breakthrough invention by Thomas Savery in 1698 and Thomas Newcomen in 1705 that burned coal to produce steam, which was then used to operate a pump; the early models were superseded by James Wat’s more efficient steam engine, patented in 1769

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Coal

Britain turned to this resource for energy due to its abundancy and efficiency:

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Iron

New advances in technology regarding energy resulted in the mass production and availability of this valuable resource:

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14

Railroads

The development of _____ in the early 1800s revolutionized transportation of goods and stimulated growth of the working class

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Rocket

the name given to George Stephenson’s effective passenger locomotive that was first tested in 1829

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Crystal Palace

the location of the Great Exhibition in 1851 in London; an architectural masterpiece made entirely of glass and iron

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Thomas Malthus

English economist who theorized that population growth grew exponentially, while food supply grew linearly, implying eventual mass famine in “Essay on the Principle of Population" in 1798

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Iron Law of Wages

theory proposed by English economist David Ricardo suggesting that the pressure of population growth prevents wages from rising above the subsistence level

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Very few outside England could understand their machines, and Britain kept in the scientists

Britain became so technologically advanced that:

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Western European

_____ countries began to catch up Britain after peace was brought in 1815:

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Growth-Oriented Government

practice of large government investment into industrialization to advance a country

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Tariff Protection

a government's way of supporting and aiding its own economy by laying high taxes on imported goods from other countries, as when the French responded to cheaper British goods flooding their country by imposing high tariffs on some imported products

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Industrialization

Economic nationalism and corporations became essentially in:

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Workhouses

English institutions to house and feed the poor, but with horrendous working conditions and arduous labor

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Luddites

group of handicraft workers who attacked factories in northern England in 1811 and later, smashing the new machines that they believed were putting them out of work

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Friedrich Engels

published “The Condition of the Working Class in England” in 1844, a blistering indictment of the middle class and opposing industrial capitalism for the rampant poverty it caused

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Family units

Workers often came to factories and mines in _____ , reminiscent of the old customs of the cottage industry:

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Robert Owen

experimented with socialist societies, and claimed that giving workers proper conditions and amenities and not employing children would be more beneficial in the industrial world

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Factory Acts

english laws passed from 1802 to 1833 that limited the workday of child laborers and set minimum hygiene and safety requirements

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Separate Sphere

a gender division of labor with the wife at home as mother and homemaker and the husband as wage earner

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Factory Acts

The _____ broke of traditional family units in labor, with more and more children receiving some sort of education

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Domestic Service

The second largest occupation, with 90% of whom were women:

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Mines Act of 1842

English law prohibiting underground work for all women and girls as well as for boys under ten

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Class Consciousness

awareness of belonging to a distinct social and economic class whose interests might conflict with those of other classes

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Combination Acts

British laws passed in 1799 that outlawed unions and strikes, favoring capitalist business people over skilled artisans; bitterly resented and widely disregarded by many craft guilds, the acts were repealed by Parliament in 1824

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Chartist Movement

a peaceful, working class movement for all males to gain the right to vote

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Proletariat

workers or working-class people

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Bourgeoisie

the middle class, typically with reference to its perceived materialistic values or conventional attitudes

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1834 Poor Law

established workhouses, housing and feeding the urban poor, but with horrendous conditions and arduous labor

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Iron Acts of 1863

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Sadler Committee Reports

an investigation into the horrendous working conditions of workers in factories

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Ashley Mines Commission

testimonies of arduous labor and the physical/sexual violence occurring in industrial mines

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