DP Biology Vocabulary - 1.2 Ultrastructure of cells

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70S

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Essential vocabulary for the IBO DP Biology course

31 Terms

1

70S

the size of prokaryotic ribosomes.

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2

80S

the size of eukaryotic ribosomes.

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3

Archaea

a domain of prokaryotes.

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4

Bacteria

a domain of prokaryotes.

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5

Binary fission

method of prokaryotic cell division.

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6

Cell wall

non-living carbohydrate-based extracellular material.

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7

Compartmentalization

seen in eukaryotes; consequence of organelles being membrane-bound.

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8

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

site of synthesis of proteins destined for export or for secretion.

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9

Eukaryote

organisms with membrane-bound nuclei.

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10

Exocrine glands

glands that secrete their products into ducts.

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11

Extracellular matrix

a network of material that is secreted by cells that serves to support, strengthen, and organize cells.

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12

Flagellum

a relatively long extension of the cell used in locomotion.

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13

Golgi body

a eukaryotic organelle that modifies proteins after translation.

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14

Histone

a protein associated with DNA that plays a role in gene expression and the packing of DNA.

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15

Lysosome

a cellular organelle involved in cellular digestion.

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16

Naked DNA

DNA not associated with histones or histone-like proteins.

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17

Nucleoid

a region of the prokaryotic cell where DNA is located.

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18

Nucleus

membrane-bound organelle found in eukaryotes that contains DNA; it is the site of replication and transcription.

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19

Organelle

a sub-cellular structure or membrane-bound compartment with a distinct structure and function.

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20

Palisade mesophyll

photosynthetic tissue below the epidermis in a leaf.

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21

Pilli

extensions of the prokaryotic cell surface membrane used for reproduction.

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22

Plasmid

extra-chromosomal DNA in a prokaryote.

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23

Prokaryote

category of a cell without a membrane-bound nucleus: archaea and bacteria.

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24

rER

rough ER - ER with ribosomes attached.

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25

Resolution

the ability to see adjacent objects or structures as distinct from each other.

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26

Ribosome

organelle involved in protein synthesis.

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27

Scanning electron microscope

an electron microscope that generates a three-dimensional image.

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28

sER

endoplasmic reticulum that synthesizes new membrane and does not have ribosomes attached.

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29

Svedberg unit

unit of molecule size based on the position that material settles out in a centrifuge tube after spinning. Larger particles tend to settle out faster and so have higher Svedberg values.

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30

Transmission electron microscope

an electron microscope that produces two-dimensional images.

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31

Ultrastructure

the detailed structure of a biological entity.

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