hormones & their functions

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releasing & release-inhibiting hormones

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releasing & release-inhibiting hormones

regulate secretion of anterior pituitary hormones

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growth hormone (GH)

essential for growth; stimulates bone & soft-tissue growth; regulates protein, lipid, & carbohydrate metabolism

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adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

stimulates glucocorticoid secretion by adrenal cortex

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thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)

stimulates secretion of thyroid hormones by thyroid gland

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prolactin

stimulates development of breasts and milk secretion by the mammary glands

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follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)

females: stimulates growth & development of ovarian follicles, estrogen secretion males: stimulates sperm production by testis

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luteinizing hormone (LH)

females: stimulates ovulation, transformation of ovarian follicle into corpus luteum, & secretion of estrogen & progesterone males: stimulates testosterone secretion by testis

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antidiuretic hormone (ADH, or vasopressin)

decreases urine output by the kidneys; promotes constriction of blood vessels (arterioles)

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oxytocin

females: stimulates uterine contractions & milk ejection by the mammary glands males: function unknown

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melatonin

regulates biological rhythms according to day-night cycles

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thymosin

stimulates proliferation & function of T lymphocytes

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thyroid hormones (T3 & T4)

increase basal metabolic rate; necessary for normal development

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calcitonin

promotes calcium deposition in bone; lowers blood calcium levels

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parathyroid hormone (PTH)

promotes calcium release from bone, calcium absorption by the intestine, & calcium reabsorption by the kidney tubules; raises blood calcium levels; stimulates vitamin D3 synthesis

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mineralcorticoids (aldosterone)

stimulate sodium reabsorption & potassium secretion by the kidney tubules

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glucocorticoids (cortisol, corticosterone)

promote catabolism of proteins & fats; raise blood glucose levels; adapt the body to stress

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androgens (sex hormones)

promote sex drive

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epinephrine

stimulates fight or flight response

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insulin

lowers blood glucose levels; stores energy by promoting protein, triglyceride, & glycogen synthesis

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glucagon

raises blood glucose levels; mobilizes energy by promoting glycogenolysis, glucogenesis

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somatostatin

inhibits secretion of pancreatic hormones; regulates digestion & absorption of nutrients by gastrointestinal system

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androgens (testosterone, androstenedione)

necessary for sperm production by testis; promote sex drive & development of secondary sex characteristics (ex. facial hair, deep voice, etc.)

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estrogens (estradiol)

necessary for follicular development; promote development of secondary sex characteristics (ex. breasts, body fat distribution, etc.)

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progestins (progesterone)

promote endometrial growth to prepare the uterus for pregnancy

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chorionic gonadotropic, estrogens, progesterone

maintain the corpus luteum; reinforce the actions of hormones secreted by the corpus luteum

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