Studied by 262 people

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1

Hidsight bias

the tendency to believe, after learning and outcome, that one would have foreseen it.

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2

Critical thinking

thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions, but examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions.

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3

Theory

an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events.

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4

Hypothesis

a testable prediction, often implied by a theory.

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5

Operational definition

a statement of the procedures used to define research variables.

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6

Replication

repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations

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7

Case study

an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles.

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8

Survey

a technique for ascertaining self reported attitudes or behaviors, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of a group.

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9

Population

all the cases in a group being studied, from which samples may be drawn.

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10

Random sample

a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion.

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11

Naturalistic observation

observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate or control the situation.

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12

Correlation

a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other.

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13

Correlation coefficient

a statistical index of between two things (from -1 to +1).

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14

Scatterplot

a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables.

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15

Illusory correlation

the perception of a relationship where none exists.

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16

Experiment

a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process.

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17

Random assignment

assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups.

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18

Double-blind procedure

an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo.

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19

Placebo effect

experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which the recipient assumes is an active agent.

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20

Experimental group

in an experiment, the group that is exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable.

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21

Control group

in an experiment, the group that is *not* exposed to the treatment; contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.

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22

Independent variable

the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied.

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23

Confounding variable

a factor other than the independent variable that might produce and effect in an experiment.

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24

Dependent Variable

the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable.

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25

Mode

the most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution.

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26

Mean

the arithmetic average of a distribution.

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27

Median

the middle score in a distribution

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28

Range

the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution.

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29

Standard deviation

a computed measure of how much score vary around the mean score.

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30

Normal curve

a symmetrical bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of data

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31

Statistical significance

a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance.

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32

Culture

the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.

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33

Informed consent

an ethical principle that research participants be told enough to enable them to choose whether they wish to participate.

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34

Debriefing

the post-experimental explanation of a study including its purpose and any deceptions to its participants

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