Psychology Chapter 1 Key Points

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Charles Darwin

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1

Charles Darwin

Published his theory of evolution in 1859. Suggested that the study of animals could reveal something about humans.

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2

Wilhelm Wundt

Opened the first psychological laboratory in 1879. Inspired others to believe that humans could be studied scientifically.

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3

Sigmund Freud

Developed a personality theory and treated patients from the late 1800s to the early 1900s. Suggested that we are influenced by childhood experiences and unconscious forces.

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4

William James

Published a widely used psychology text in 1890. Suggested that humans be studied as complete wholes.

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5

B.F. Skinner

Studied the effects of the environment from the mid 1950s to the 1980s. Emphasized that a scientific psychology should study observable behaviours rather than thoughts.

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6

Carl Rogers

Studied personal growth from the 1950s to the 1980s. Emphasized the positive side of human nature.

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7

Neurobiology

Behavior viewed in terms of biological responses

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8

Behaviorism

Behavior viewed as a product of learned responses. Focuses on observable behavior only.

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9

Humanism

Behavior viewed as a reflection of internal growth

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10

Psychoanalysis

The theory and therapy based on the work of Sigmund Freud, emphasizing the revealing of unconscious conflicts

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11

Cognitive Psychology

Behavior viewed as a product of various internal sentences or thoughts.

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12

Sociocultural Psychology

behavior viewed as strongly influenced by the rules and expectations of specific social groups or cultures

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13

Psychology

the scientific study of behavior and mental processes in animals and humans

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14

Structuralism

early perspective in psychology associated with Wilhelm Wundt and Edward Titchener, in which the focus of study is the structure or basic elements of the mind

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15

Functionalism

Early perspective in psychology associated with William James, in which the focus of study is how the mind allows people to adapt, live, work, and play

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16

Psychodynamic perspective

modern version of psychoanalysis that is more focused on the development of a sense of self and the discovery of other motivations behind a person's behavior than repressed desires

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17

Cognitive perspective

modern perspective that focuses on memory, intelligence, perception, problem solving, and learning

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18

Cognitive neuroscience

study of the physical changes in the brain and nervous system during thinking

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19

Sociocultural perspective

perspective that focuses on the relationship between social behavior and culture

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20

Biopsychological perspective

perspective that attributes human and animal behavior to biological events occurring in the body, such as genetic influences, hormones, and the activity of the nervous system

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21

Evolutionary psychology

perspective that focuses on the biological bases of universal mental characteristics that all humans share

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22

Positive psychology

a viewpoint that recommends shifting the focus of psychology away from the negative aspects to a more positive focus on strengths, well-being, and the pursuit of happiness

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23

Clinical psychology

area of psychology in which the psychologists diagnose and treat people with psychological disorders that may range from mild to severe

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24

Counseling psychology

area of psychology in which the psychologists help people with problems of adjustment

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25

Developmental psychology

area of psychology in which the psychologists study the changes in the way people think, relate to others, and feel as they age

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26

Experimental psychology

area of psychology in which the psychologists primarily do research and experiments in the areas of learning, memory, thinking, perception, motivation, and language

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27

Social psychology

area of psychology in which the psychologist focus on how human behavior is affected by the presence of other people

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28

Personality psychology

area of psychology in which the psychologists study the differences in personality among people

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29

Psysiological Psychology

area of psychology in which the psychologists study the biological bases of behavior

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30

Comparitive psychology

area of psychology in which the psychologists study animals and their behavior for the purpose of comparing and contrasting it to human behavior

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31

industrial/organizational psychology

area of psychology concerned with the relationships between people and their work environment

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32

Introspection

thinking objectively about our own thoughts

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33

Domains

different views, perspectives, or beliefs

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34

Conditioning

a learned reflex response

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