Unit 2: Freedom, Enslavement, and Resistance

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40 Terms

1

Ladinos

The first Africans in the territory that came into the USA, known as Ladinos, were part of a generation known as "Atlantic Creoles" and worked as intermediaries before the predominance of chattel slavery.

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2

Juan Garrido

Juan Garrido was a conquistador born in the Kingdom of Kongo who became the first known African to travel to North America as a free man in 1513. He served in the Spanish military forces to conquer indigenous populations.

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3

Estevanico (Esteban)

Estevanico, an enslaved African healer from Morocco, was forced to work as an explorer and translator in Texas in 1528. He was eventually killed by Indigenous groups resisting Spanish colonialism.

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4

Transatlantic Slave Trade

The transatlantic slave trade lasted over 350 years and forcibly transported more than 12.5 million enslaved Africans to the Americas. Only about 5 percent of those who survived came directly from Africa to the US.

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5

Slave-trading zones in Africa

Nine contemporary African regions were involved in the slave trade, including Senegambia, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Benin, Nigeria, Angola, and Mozambique. Over half of the captives brought to mainland North America were from Senegambia and Angola.

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6

Three-Part Journey

The transatlantic slave trade involved a three-part journey. Africans were captured and marched from interior states to the Atlantic coast, then traveled across the Atlantic Ocean in crowded and unsanitary conditions, and finally were quarantined, resold, and transported domestically to distant locations.

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7

Slave Auctions

Slave auctions were characterized by the power of law and white supremacy, leading to the assault on the body, mind, and spirit of enslaved individuals. African American authors wrote literature to emphasize the physical and emotional effects of being sold.

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8

Roles of Slaves

Slaves had various roles, including agricultural, domestic, and skilled labor in urban areas. They also developed cultural practices and contributed to the economy through blacksmithing, basketweaving, and the cultivation of crops like rice and indigo.

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9

Partus Sequitur Ventrem

Partus Sequitur Ventrem was a law in the 17th century that determined a child's legal status based on their mother's status, impacting enslaved African Americans greatly. It ensured that enslaved African American women's children would also be considered property.

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10

Forms of Self-expression

African Americans drew upon blended influences from African ancestors, community members, and local European and Indigenous cultures to express themselves. They used aesthetic influences, musical elements, and linguistic practices to create a distinct African American culture.

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11

Changing Demographics

The ban on international slave trading in 1808 led to a decline in the percentage of African-born people in the African American population. The American Colonization Society aimed to exile the free Black population, leading African Americans to reject the term African and describe themselves through multiple ethnonyms.

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12

The Stono Rebellion and Fort Mose

The Stono Rebellion was a slave revolt in 1739 where 100 slaves set fire to plantations and marched to Spanish Florida. Fort Mose, the first free black town, offered refuge to enslaved individuals fleeing British oppression.

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13

Legacies of the Haitian Revolution

The Haitian Revolution resulted in the establishment of a Black republic without slavery and had global impacts. Maroons, who were Black people who escaped slavery to establish free communities, disseminated information and organized attacks for the Haitian revolution.

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14

Resistance and Revolts in the United States

Enslaved individuals engaged in daily forms of resistance, such as slowing work and attempting to run away. Revolts, such as the Santo Domingo revolt in 1526 and the Charles Deslondes German Coast Uprising in 1811, were significant in the abolitionist effort.

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15

Black Organizing in the North

Black communities in the North organized mutual-aid societies and funded schools, businesses, and churches. Black women activists, like Maria W. Stewart, played a significant role in fighting for abolitionism and women's rights.

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16

Maroon communities

Hidden communities that emerged throughout the African diaspora where self-emancipated people were free and African culture prevailed.

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17

Maroon wars

Wars staged by Maroons against colonial governments, advocating for freedom and sometimes making treaties to extinguish slave rebellions.

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18

Brazilian enslavement

The large number of enslaved Africans who were forced to work in various industries in Brazil, such as sugar plantations, gold mines, and coffee plantations.

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19

Capoeira

A martial art developed by slaves in Brazil that combines music and singing.

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20

Congada

A celebration in Brazil that commemorates the birth of the king of Kongo.

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21

Slavery's affect on relations

The impact of slavery on the relationships between Maroons, Indigenous peoples, and Black communities, which often led to conflict and redefined Black communities as outsiders.

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22

Freedom and Self-determination

The desire for freedom and self-determination that led some abolitionists to build communities outside the US to avoid slavery and discrimination.

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23

Underground Railroad

A network of black and white abolitionists who provided transportation, shelter, and resources to help enslaved individuals escape to freedom in the North, Canada, and Mexico.

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24

Harriet Tubman

An important figure in the Underground Railroad who made multiple trips to the South to lead enslaved individuals to freedom and later served as a spy and nurse for the Union Army during the Civil War.

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25

Visual Depictions

The use of photography by African Americans to counter stereotypes and showcase leadership, freedom, and black achievement.

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26

Methods of resistance against sexual violence

Various methods used by Black women to resist sexual violence, including fighting attackers, using abortion drugs, infanticide, and running away with children.

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27

Contributions during Civil War

The contributions of free and enslaved Black communities during the Civil War, with men serving as soldiers and women working as cooks, nurses, and spies.

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28

Ending enslavement

The Emancipation Proclamation and the Thirteenth Amendment, which secured the permanent abolition of slavery in the United States.

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29

Juneteenth

The celebration of the end of slavery in Texas in 1865, marked by the reading of General Order 3, which mentioned racial equality.

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30

13th amendment

Abolished slavery in the United States. Passed in 1865 after the Civil War. Ended involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime.

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31

Combahee River Raid

Significant military operation led by the Black feminist organization, Combahee River Collective, during the Civil Rights Movement. Conducted in 1863, it liberated over 700 enslaved individuals in South Carolina. The raid strategically targeted plantations along the Combahee River, destroying property and disrupting the Confederate economy.

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32

Radical Resistance

A strategy used to challenge and oppose existing systems or structures through unconventional and revolutionary means. It aims to bring about significant social, political, or cultural change by questioning and challenging the status quo. It often involves direct action, civil disobedience, and grassroots organizing to challenge power dynamics and promote social justice.

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33

Black nationalism

A political and social movement advocating for the empowerment, unity, and self-determination of Black people. It promotes the idea that Black communities should have control over their own political, economic, and social systems. Black nationalism emphasizes the importance of cultural pride, self-reliance, and the fight against systemic racism and oppression.

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34

Moral Suasion

Using persuasive communication and appeals to ethics to influence people's behavior or beliefs, often without the use of force or coercion.

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35

Manumission

The act of freeing a slave from bondage.

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36

Fugitive Slave Acts

Laws passed in the United States in 1793 and 1850 that required the capture and return of escaped slaves to their owners. These acts denied escaped slaves their freedom and increased tensions between the North and the South on the issue of slavery.

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37

Quilombo dos Palmares

Quilombo dos Palmares: Largest quilombo in colonial Brazil. A self-sustaining community of escaped African slaves and indigenous people. Fought against Portuguese oppression for over a century. Symbol of resistance and freedom. Led by Zumbi dos Palmares.

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38

Great Dismal Swamp

Flashcard: Great Dismal Swamp

  • Vast wetland on the East Coast of the US

  • Located in Virginia and North Carolina

  • Historically served as a refuge for escaped slaves

  • Important part of the Underground Railroad

  • Symbolizes resistance against slavery and freedom-seeking efforts

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39

Maria Stewart


Maria Stewart: Prominent 19th-century African American abolitionist, women's rights advocate, and public speaker. Known for her powerful speeches challenging racism and sexism, she paved the way for future activists.

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40

Maroon

Escaped enslaved Africans who formed communities in remote areas, resisting capture and slavery. They often lived in jungles, mountains, or swamps, relying on their resourcefulness to survive. Maroons developed their own social structures, economies, and sometimes even fought against slaveholders. They played a significant role in the fight against slavery in the Americas.

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