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Uniformitarianism

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Uniformitarianism

the rates of change that we see today have been the same through earth history . processes of change are uniform

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Catastrophism

the world came about very quick through sudden chromatin changes - great flood, in 7 days -exclusive idea until 1800s

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Lamarckism

(disproven theory) inheritance of acquired traits= changes to an organism during a lifetime are passed on its offspring

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Natural selection

process that promotes the maintenance and spread of traits that enhance survival and fecundit

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individuals vary heritable component to variation individuals with certain attributes survive and/or reproduce better than others

evolution by natural selection consist of?

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Adaptation

-attunement to the environment -a trait that increases fitness in a particular environment -only get from natural selection

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purifying selection

selection for the current phenotype (keeping the phenotype exactly the same)

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disruptive selection

selection for two different allele states

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directional selection

-selection away from the current phenotype -replacement of one allele with another

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hardy weinburg model is?

to calculate allele frequencies in the next generation -what happens to alleles in the next generation

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key assumptions of hardy weinburg equilibrium

No natural selection on allele No genetic drift Random mating Also no migration of allele for another population

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genetic drift

-evolution due to chance events in small populations -change in allele frequency due to sampling error

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neutral theory

most evolutionary change in dna sequences (sequence evolution) is due to genetic drift of mutant alleles that are selectively neutral (Motoo Kimura)

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synonymous mutation

when a change in nucleotide sequences doesn't change amino acid sequence

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non-synonymous mutation

when a change in nucleotide does change the amino acid sequence

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primordial soul model

life began from a series of chemical reactions in water on earth's surface triggered by an external energy source such as lightning strike or ultraviolet (UV) light Hypothesis

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primordial soup model hypothesis

Spontaneous appearance of organic molecules Emergent properties- resulting in more complex macromolecules An evolutionary selection occurred for self replication and membrane compartmentalization

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RNA world hypothesis

life on earth began with a simple RNA molecule that could copy itself

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-RNA can serve as both a genetic code and a folded structure that enables enzymatic function

why did RNA world start

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chimera hypothesis

In biology, a chimera is an organism containing a mixture of genetic material from 2 or more (usually distant related) species -an achaean and bacteria fused to form one

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endosymbiont hypothesis

-mitochondria lived inside primitive eukaryotes and evolved to become co dependent -may have started as a parasite or undigested food

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complex life evolved without mitochondria

endosymbiont hypothesis

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complexity was not possible without mitochondria

chimera hypothesis

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why was the evolution of eukaryotic/mitochondria significant?

Eukaryotes escaped the need for extreme efficiency and replication speed

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the organization of the eukaryotic cell

Mitochondrion lost 99% of its genome Nucleus gained tens of thousands of genes

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modern eukaryotic cell

mitochondrial component- metabolic and biosynthesis functions

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what are the archaeon & bacterial genomes in eukaryotes?

nuclear DNA(archaeon) Mitochondrial DNA- (bacterial )

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introns

the result of insertion of mitochondrial DNA into nuclear DNA

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two adaptations in response to intron problem

spliceosome & nuclear membrane

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spliceosome

molecular system that cuts out introns before translation (already existed in bacteria

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nuclear membrane

needed to physically separate transcription and translation

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mitonuclear coadaptation hypothesis

selection for mitonuclear coadaptation is only possible if there is no heteroplasmy

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mitonuclear coadaptation

The coordination of function by the products if the mitochondrial genome and the nuclear genome to achieve oxidative phosphorylation,maintained by coevolution

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genomic conflict hypothesis

avoiding heteroplasmy is necessary to avoid genomic conflict among mitochondria (selecting for faster replication speed)

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genomic conflict

A conflict of interest within an organism wherein one or a set of genes have phenotypic effects that promote their own transmission to the detriment of the transmission of their genes that reside in the same genome

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gene level selection hypothesis

Each gene promotes its own spread in the population Natural selection acts at the level of the gene

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selfish gene

does not harm other genes

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outlaw genes

directly harm other genes

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genomic conflict

contest among genes

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the paradox of sex (two fold cost of sex)

lose 50% of reproductive advantage through asexual reproduction -when producing sexually. female is only 1/2 related to offspring

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red queen hypothesis (adaptable genotype theory of sex)

Asexual does not produce enough and is not diverse enough to keep up with environmnetal changes Pathogen co evolution is proposed as the main driver of sex

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sexual reproduction

the production of descendent individuals by combining t=genetic information from “parent” individuals

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asexual reproduction

genome is copied and transmitted to descendants

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advantages & disadvantages of asexual reproduction

-would gain 50% greater reproductive advantage

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advantages & disadvantages of sexual reproduction

-reproducing sexually, a female is only 1/2 related to offspring -cost of mate searching, sexual diseases, destruction of successful gene combinations -recombination (advantage)

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antagonistic pleiotropy

when the fitness effect of a gene is both positive and negative

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antagonistic pleiotropy of aging

natural selection favors genes that bestow benefits early in life even if they carry a cost late in life

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How is the germline shielded from mutation?

The mitochondria of female germ cells are almost never metabolically active.

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r selected species

invest more ein reproduction and less in self maintenance for survival (rat and finch) -short life, more reproduction

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k selected species

invest less in reproduction and more in self maintenance for survival -long life, less reproduction

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2 broad methods for constructing phylogenies

phenetics & cladistics

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phenetics

method for constructing phylogenies based on the overall similarity of the organisms . total shared traits Group organisms by similarity

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cladistics

method for constructing phylogenies based on shared derived characters

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homology

similar by descent (inherit trait from common ancestor)

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homoplasy

similar due to convergent evolution (independently evolve trait)

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cladogenesis

formation of 2 or more species from an ancestral species (speciation)

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anagenesis

evolutionary change within a species (lineage) over time. descent with modification (adaptation)

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biological species concept

-s species sia by interbreeding population reproductively isolated from all other populations

“Good species do not hybridize”

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phylogenetics species concept

-a species is any group of organisms with a unique evolutionary history as diagnosed by one or more traits -any diagnosable (difference) group is a species

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proximate causation

the developmental and physiological mechanisms responsible for the trait

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ultimate causation

the evolutionary forces that shape the trait

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hamiltons rule

social behavior evolves under specific combinations of relatedness, benefit and cost B x R > C

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eusociality

behavior pattern where some individuals do no reproduce to promote the reproduction of others

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intrasexual selection

male-male competition -direct contents for access to mates -leads to the evolution of armaments

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intersexual selection

female mate choice -coercing females into choice -leads to evolution of ornaments

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indicator trait hypothesis

ornamental traits are honest signals of male quality -by choosing ornamental traits, female gain fitness benefits beyond attractive sons

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genotype physical condition/resources

what determines male quality

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mutualism

two species benefits from the activity of each other

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symbiosis

two species depend on the existence of each other

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coevolution

changes in the allele frequency in the genome of one species affects the allele frequencies in the genome of a second species

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life on earth started

3.5 billion years ago

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the big bang was

14 billion years ago

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eukaryotes came about

2 billion years ago

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earth was created

4.5 billion years ago

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gene,group,individual are

the individual

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with two mating types

you lose half of the mates

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