ZOOLOGY LAB FINAL EXAM

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Anatomical Position

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477 Terms

1

Anatomical Position

Standard reference point in medicine that is used to increase accuracy

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Anatomical Position

To stand erect, facing forward, arms at the side, palms and toes directed forward

<p>To stand erect, facing forward, arms at the side, palms and toes directed forward</p>
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3

Sagittal Plane

Cardinal Plane that divides the body into left and right halves

<p>Cardinal Plane that divides the body into left and right halves</p>
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4

Frontal or Coronal Plane

Cardinal Plane that divides the body intro front and back halves

<p>Cardinal Plane that divides the body intro front and back halves</p>
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5

Transverse plane

Cardinal plane that divides the body into upper and lower halves

<p>Cardinal plane that divides the body into upper and lower halves</p>
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6

Claudial or inferior

Located in the tail of the body

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Cranial or cephalic or superior

Located at the head

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Pelvic

Located at the hips

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9

Oblique Section

Cuts made diagonally

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10

Pectoral

Located at the chest

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11

Anterior

Frontal or near the front region of the body

<p>Frontal or near the front region of the body</p>
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12

Posterior

hind or near the hind region of the body

<p>hind or near the hind region of the body</p>
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13

Dorsal

Toward the back or near the back region of the body

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14

Ventral

toward the belly or near the belly region of the body

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15

Lateral

Located at the side or near the side relative to the center of the body

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16

Medial or central

located or towards the middle part of the body relative to its center

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17

Proximal

near the origin or point of attachment in the body

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18

Distal

Far from the origin or point of attachment in the body

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19

Superficial

Surface of the body

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20

Deep

Within the body

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21

Ipsilateral

On the same side

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22

Contralateral

On opposite sides

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23

Flexion

Movement of the body that refers to decreasing joint angle

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Extension

Movement of the body that refers to Increasing joint angle

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Abduction

Movement of the body that refers to Moving away from the midline

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Adduction

Movement of the body that refers to moving toward the midline

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27

Hyperflexion

Movement of the body that refers to flexion beyond normal range

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Hyperextension

Movement of the body that refers to extension beyond normal range

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Hyperabduction

Movement of the body that refers to Abduction past 180 degrees point

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Hyperadduction

Movement of the body that refers to Adduction past 0 degree point

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31

Circumduction

Movement in a conic fashion

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32

Plantarflexion

Movement of the body that refers to increasing angle between foot and shank

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Dorsiflexion

Movement of the body that refers to decreasing angle between foot and shank

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34

Inversion

Movement of the body that refers to lifting the medial edge of foot

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Eversion

Movement of the body that refers to lifting the lateral edge of foot

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36

Median Rotation

Internal or inward rotation

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37

Lateral Rotation

External or outward rotation

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38

Midsagittal Plane

Sagittal plane that lies on the midline

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39

Integumentary system

Set of organs that forms the external covering of the body and protects it from external environment

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40

Integumentum

Latin word that means "to cover"

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41

Skin

Main organ of the integumentary system

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42

36 degrees celsius

Normal temperature of human body

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43

presence of vocal sacs size of the body shape of snout or head enlarge innermost digit presence of dark spots in the neck or throat

Differences of male and female frogs

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44

Rana vittigera

Scientific name of frog

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45

Parts are similar to man they are small, can be easily handles they are readily available and cheaper they have a well documented life cycle

Reasons why frogs are used as representative sample in zoology

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46

Rainy season

Breeding season of frogs

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47

Snout

Most anterior border of the head of the frog

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48

Browspot

Vestigial eye located between the eyeballs

<p>Vestigial eye located between the eyeballs</p>
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49

Eyes

Bulging structures which consists of three eyelids

<p>Bulging structures which consists of three eyelids</p>
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50

Nictitating membrane

Transparent structure that covers the eye to protect it and keep it moist

<p>Transparent structure that covers the eye to protect it and keep it moist</p>
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51

External Nares

Two openings which are anteriorly located that serves as an entry and exit way of air

<p>Two openings which are anteriorly located that serves as an entry and exit way of air</p>
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52

Tympanic Membrane

Two flat and rounded structures located laterally behind the eyeballs that receives sound waves

<p>Two flat and rounded structures located laterally behind the eyeballs that receives sound waves</p>
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53

Trunk

main mass of the body

<p>main mass of the body</p>
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54

Forelimb

composed of the upper arm, lower arm, carpus, and manus

<p>composed of the upper arm, lower arm, carpus, and manus</p>
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55

Mouth

Anterior opening of the frog's body

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56

Hindlimb

Made up of the thigh, shanks, tarsus, and pes

<p>Made up of the thigh, shanks, tarsus, and pes</p>
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57

Pes

Feet of the frog

<p>Feet of the frog</p>
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58

Tarsus

Ankle of the frog

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59

Carpus

Wrist of the frog

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60

Manus

Hand of the frog

<p>Hand of the frog</p>
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61

Digits

Fingers and toes of the frog

<p>Fingers and toes of the frog</p>
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62

Web

Located in between the digits in the hindlimb which allows them to push themselves in the water for swimming

<p>Located in between the digits in the hindlimb which allows them to push themselves in the water for swimming</p>
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63

Esophagus

Tube that connects the mouth and the stomach

<p>Tube that connects the mouth and the stomach</p>
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64

Glottis

opening from the mouth in the respiratory system, to the vocal cord or lungs

<p>opening from the mouth in the respiratory system, to the vocal cord or lungs</p>
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65

Tongue

Muscular structure attached tot he front of the mouth which can be extended

<p>Muscular structure attached tot he front of the mouth which can be extended</p>
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66

Maxillary Teeth

Sharp teeth in the maxillary that holds captured prey

<p>Sharp teeth in the maxillary that holds captured prey</p>
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67

Vomerine Teeth

Small projections in the top of a frog's mouth that holds captured prey

<p>Small projections in the top of a frog&apos;s mouth that holds captured prey</p>
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68

Eustachian Tube Opening

Mouth openings that lead to tubes that connect to the middle ear to equalize air pressure

<p>Mouth openings that lead to tubes that connect to the middle ear to equalize air pressure</p>
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69

Cloacal Opening

Opening of cloaca through which indigested food, urine, and sperm are passed

<p>Opening of cloaca through which indigested food, urine, and sperm are passed</p>
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70

Vocal Sacs

Flexible membrane of skin that is used for amplification of a male's mating call

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71

Muscular System

Organ system that is responsible for the movement of the body; made out of muscle fibers

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72

Skeletal muscle tissue

A type of muscle tissue that has striations and is involved in voluntary movements

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73

Cardiac Muscle Tissue

A type of muscle tissue that has striations and is involved in involuntary movements like propelling blood in circulation

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74

Smooth Muscle Tissue

A type of muscle tissue that does not have striations and is involved in involuntary movements like giving birth

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75

40%

Percentage of muscles to our body weight

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76

Gluteus maximus

largest muscle in the body

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77

Ear

Part of the body that contains the smallest muscle and bone

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78

Masseter

Strongest muscle by weight, located in the jaw

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79

Cardiac Muscle

the hardest-working muscle in the body

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80

Myology

the study of the structure and functions of muscles

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81

Fascia

connective tissue membrane lining the outer surface of the muscles, dense fibrous, connective tissue

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82

Tendon

Formed by fascia

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83

Aponeuroses

flat tendons

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84

Protractor

pushes a part away from the base

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85

Supinator

rotator that turns a part upward

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86

Pronator

rotator the turns a part downward

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87

Temporalis

broad muscle posterior to the eye and on the same level as the tympanum

<p>broad muscle posterior to the eye and on the same level as the tympanum</p>
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88

Depressor Mandibulae

flat fan shaped muscles posterior to the temporalis that originates from the tough fascia in the middorsal line. It inserts into the lower jaw and serves as a jaw depressor.

<p>flat fan shaped muscles posterior to the temporalis that originates from the tough fascia in the middorsal line. It inserts into the lower jaw and serves as a jaw depressor.</p>
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89

Latissimus dorsi

Broad muscles posterior to and partly covered by the depressor mandibulae

<p>Broad muscles posterior to and partly covered by the depressor mandibulae</p>
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90

Longissimus Dorsi

Posterior to the latissimus dorsi these muscles are attached to the anterior third of the urostyle and skull. They are inserted along the vertebral column and they serve as extensor of the back and levator of the head.

<p>Posterior to the latissimus dorsi these muscles are attached to the anterior third of the urostyle and skull. They are inserted along the vertebral column and they serve as extensor of the back and levator of the head.</p>
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91

Coccygeosacralis

A pair of narrow V – shaped muscles posterior to the longissimus dorsi

<p>A pair of narrow V – shaped muscles posterior to the longissimus dorsi</p>
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92

Coccygeoilliacus

A pair of broad V shaped muscles posterior to coccygeo sacralis.

<p>A pair of broad V shaped muscles posterior to coccygeo sacralis.</p>
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93

Mylohyoid

A large transverse muscle on the ventral surface of the mouth floor this muscle

<p>A large transverse muscle on the ventral surface of the mouth floor this muscle</p>
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94

Median Raphe

A midventral connective tissue partition that divides the mylohyoid into left and right portions

<p>A midventral connective tissue  partition that divides the mylohyoid into left and right portions</p>
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95

Anterior Pectoralis

This muscle lies immediately posterior to the strenoradialis and the most anterior of the chest muscle. It originates from the epicoracoidea and it is inserted into the deltoid ridge; it acts as adductor and rotator of the arm.

<p>This muscle lies immediately posterior to the strenoradialis and the most anterior of the chest muscle. It originates from the epicoracoidea and it is inserted into the deltoid ridge; it acts as adductor and rotator of the arm.</p>
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96

Middle Pectoralis

Posterior to the anterior pectoralis. this muscle takes origin from the mesosternum and xiphisternum. It is inserted into the ventral portion of the proximal end of the humerus and adducts and rotates the arm.

<p>Posterior to the anterior pectoralis. this muscle takes origin from the mesosternum and xiphisternum. It is inserted into the ventral portion of the proximal end of the humerus and adducts and rotates the arm.</p>
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97

Posterior Pectoralis

Postero – lateral to the middle pectoralis. it extends to almost the entire portion of the median surface of the trunk. It is inserted into the deltoid ridge; it serves as adductor and rotator of the arm.

<p>Postero – lateral to the middle pectoralis. it extends to almost the entire portion of the median surface of the trunk. It is inserted into the deltoid ridge; it serves as adductor and rotator of the arm.</p>
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98

Rectus Adbominis

This longitudinal muscle extends to each side of the linea alba

<p>This longitudinal muscle extends to each side of the linea alba</p>
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99

Linea Alba

a strip of connective tissue that acts as a partition on the midventral line.

<p>a strip of connective tissue that acts as a partition on the midventral line.</p>
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100

Inscriptiones tendinae

Divides the rectus adbominis into muscle segments.

<p>Divides the rectus adbominis into muscle segments.</p>
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