ap world unit 3

studied byStudied by 10 people
5.0(1)
get a hint
hint

gunpowder empires

1 / 75

Tags and Description

76 Terms

1

gunpowder empires

What were large, multi ethnic states that relied heavily on military to conquer called?

New cards
2

Gutenburg Printing Press

What invention helped spread the ideas of the Renaissance and the Reformation?

New cards
3

Ivan IV

the Terrible, beat the Mongols, Tartars, and the Poles, forced nobles into service, first ruler to take the title tsar

New cards
4

Ming Dynasty

Succeeded Mongol Yuan dynasty in China in 1368; lasted until 1644; initially mounted huge trade expeditions to southern Asia and elsewhere, but later concentrated efforts on internal development within China.

New cards
5

Manchus

Northeast Asian peoples who defeated the Ming Dynasty and founded the Qing Dynasty in 1644, which was the last of China's imperial dynasties.

New cards
6

Qing Dynasty (1644-1911)

Minority Manchu rule over China that incorporated new territories, experienced substantial population growth, and sustained significant economic growth.

New cards
7

Emperor Kangxi

The Kangxi Emperor was the fourth emperor of the Qing dynasty, the first to be born on Chinese soil south of the Pass and the second Qing emperor to rule over China proper, from 1661 to 1722.

New cards
8

Emperor Qianlong

Emperor who reigned from 1736-1795. He was approached by Lord Macartney about liberalizing the trade restrictions; turned down the offer claiming that Europe had nothing to offer China.

New cards
9

Tamerlane

He is very much like Ghengis Khan; a military leader who conquered the lands of Persia; his empire was decentralized with tribal leaders.

New cards
10

Ghazi ideal

a model for warrior life that blended the cooperative values of nomadic culture with the willingness to serve as a holy fighter for Islam

New cards
11

Babur

founder of Mughal dynasty in India; descended from Turkic warriors; first led invasion of India in 1526; died in 1530.

New cards
12

Ottoman Empire

Islamic state founded by Osman in northwestern Anatolia. After the fall of the Byzantine Empire, the Ottoman Empire was based at Istanbul (formerly Constantinople) from 1453-1922. It encompassed lands in the Middle East, North Africa, the Caucasus, and eastern Europe.

New cards
13

Mehmed II

Ottoman sultan called the "Conqueror"; responsible for conquest of Constantinople in 1453; destroyed what remained of Byzantine Empire.

New cards
14

Suleiman I (Suleiman the Magnificent)

Son of Selim the Grim and fourth of the great sultans, known for the splendor of his court and cultural achievements; was the most powerful ruler in the world during his time

New cards
15

Safavid Empire

Turkish-ruled Iranian kingdom (1502-1722) established by Ismail Safavi, who declared Iran a Shi'ite state.

New cards
16

Ismail

A great Safavid ruler who, at the age of 14, conquered much of the territory that became the Safavid Empire. He was a religious tyrant who made Shi'ia the state religion.

New cards
17

Shah

king

New cards
18

Shah Abbas I (1587-1629)

presided over safavid at it's height

New cards
19

Mughal Empire

an Islamic imperial power that ruled a large portion of Indian subcontinent which began in 1526, invaded and ruled most of Hindustan (South Asia) by the late 17th and early 18th centuries, and ended in the mid-19th century.

New cards
20

Castes

social groups into which people are born and which can rarely be changed

New cards
21

Aurangzeb

son and successor of Shah Jahan; pushed extent of Mughal control in India; reversed previous policies to purify Islam of Hindu influences; incessant warfare depleted the empire's resources; died in 1707.

New cards
22

Divine Right of Kings

Doctrine that states that the right of ruling comes from God and not people's consent

New cards
23

Justices of the Peace (JPs)

Officials selected by the lang gentry who's job was to maintain the peace in the counties of england

New cards
24

English Bill of Rights

King William and Queen Mary accepted this document in 1689. It guaranteed certain rights to English citizens and declared that elections for Parliament would happen frequently. By accepting this document, they supported a limited monarchy, a system in which they shared their power with Parliament and the people.

New cards
25

Cardinal Richelieu

(1585-1642) Minister to Louis XIII. His three point plan (1. Break the power of the nobility, 2. Humble the House of Austria, 3. Control the Protestants) helped to send France on the road to absolute monarchy.

New cards
26

Intendants

French government agents who collected taxes and administered justice.

New cards
27

Tax Farmers

Indirect taxes farmed out to highest bidder. Charged more than required to collect as commission. Led to very ineffecient and corrupt system. Furthermore, only peasants and lower MC ended up paying taxes becos. nobs. tax exempt. Deal with Kings - raise taxes without consent of nobs as long as nobs. not taxed. Unfair tax burden on peasants.

New cards
28

Louis XIV

(1638-1715) Known as the Sun King, he was an absolute monarch that completely controlled France. One of his greatest accomplishments was the building of the palace at Versailles.

New cards
29

Versailles

Palace constructed by Louis XIV outside of Paris to glorify his rule and subdue the nobility.

New cards
30

Boyars

Russian nobles

New cards
31

Serfdom

A type of labor commonly used in feudal systems in which the laborers work the land in return for protection but they are bound to the land and are not allowed to leave or to peruse their a new occupation. This was common in early Medeival Europe as well as in Russia until the mid 19th century.

New cards
32

Oprichnina

The secret army/police created by Ivan IV or Ivan the Terrible that he used to kill anyone who got in his way (i.e. the Boyars)

New cards
33

Romanov Dynasty

Dynasty that favored the nobles, reduced military obligations, expanded the Russian empire further east, and fought several unsuccessful wars, yet they lasted from 1613 to 1917.

New cards
34

Peter I

Also known as Peter the Great; son of Alexis Romanov; ruled from 1689 to 1725; continued growth of absolutism and conquest; included more definite interest in changing selected aspects of economy and culture through imitation of western European models.

New cards
35

Janissaries

Christian boys taken from families, converted to Islam, and then rigorously trained to serve the sultan

New cards
36

Devshirme

'Selection' in Turkish. The system by which boys from Christian communities were taken by the Ottoman state to serve as Janissaries.

New cards
37

Daimyo

A Japanese feudal lord who commanded a private army of samurai

New cards
38

Edo

Tokugawa capital city; modern-day Tokyo; center of the Tokugawa shogunate.

New cards
39

Tokugawa Shogunate

was a semi-feudal government of Japan in which one of the shoguns unified the country under his family's rule. They moved the capital to Edo, which now is called Tokyo. This family ruled from Edo 1868, when it was abolished during the Meiji Restoration.

New cards
40

Period of Great Peace

Change in Samurai role; period of time in Japan in which everything was stable and peaceful

New cards
41

Akbar

The most famous Muslim ruler of India during the period of Mughal rule. Famous for his religious tolerance, his investment in rich cultural feats, and the creation of a centralized governmental administration, which was not typical of ancient and post-classical India.

New cards
42

Delhi Sultanate

The first Islamic government established within India from 1206-1520. Controled a small area of northern India and was centered in Delhi.

New cards
43

Zamindars

Archaic tax system of the Mughal empire where decentralized lords collected tribute for the emperor.

New cards
44

Askia the Great

Songhai ruler, he overthrew Sunni Baru. His reign was the high point of Songhai culture.

New cards
45

Taj Mahal

beautiful mausoleum at Agra built by the Mogul emperor Shah Jahan (completed in 1649) in memory of his favorite wife

New cards
46

Shah Jahan

Mogul emperor of India during whose reign the finest monuments of Mogul architecture were built (including the Taj Mahal at Agra) (1592-1666)

New cards
47

Topkapi

Political headquarters of the Ottoman Empire, it was located in Istanbul.

New cards
48

Constantinople

A large and wealthy city that was the imperial capital of the Byzantine empire and later the Ottoman empire, now known as Istanbul

New cards
49

tributes

wealth sent from one country or ruler to another as a sign that the other is superior

New cards
50

King Henry IV of France

He was a Huguenot who inherited the French throne in 1589. He worked to fight the Catholics for many years, but converted to Catholicism. Eventually issued the Edict of Nantes in 1595, which gave the Huguenots religious toleration. His goal was to put "a chicken in every pot." He increased the bureaucracy and worked to reduce the power of the nobles. This paved the way for future kings to rule without any check on their power. In 1610, he was assassinated, leaving the throne to his nine-year old son, Louis XIII.

New cards
51

Sikhism

the doctrines of a monotheistic religion founded in northern India in the 16th century by Guru Nanak and combining elements of Hinduism and Islam

New cards
52

Martin Luther

95 Thesis, posted in 1517, led to religious reform in Germany, denied papal power and absolutist rule. Claimed there were only 2 sacraments: baptism and communion.

New cards
53

Indulgence

a pardon releasing a person from punishments due for a sin

New cards
54

Simony

The selling of church offices

New cards
55

95 Theses

It was nailed to a church door in Wittenberg, Germany in 1517 and is widely seen as being the catalyst that started the Protestant Reformation. It contained Luther's list of accusations against the Roman Catholic Church.

New cards
56

Calvinism

Protestant sect founded by John Calvin. Emphasized a strong moral code and believed in predestination (the idea that God decided whether or not a person would be saved as soon as they were born). Calvinists supported constitutional representative government and the separation of church and state.

New cards
57

Lutherism

founded by Martin Luther. Broke away from Roman Catholic Church. Began the Protestant Reformation. Luther's 95 Thesis. Emphasized inner faith in God. No ceremonies.

New cards
58

John Calvin

religious reformer who believed in predestination and a strict sense of morality for society

New cards
59

Elect

In Calvinist doctrine, those who have been chosen by God for salvation.

New cards
60

Predestined

destiny; fate; decided beforehand

New cards
61

Puritans

A religious group who wanted to purify the Church of England.

New cards
62

Protestant Reformation

A religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches.

New cards
63

Anglicanism

A Protestant denomination of the Christian faith founded by Henry VIII in England

New cards
64

Henry VIII

(1491-1547) King of England from 1509 to 1547; his desire to annul his marriage led to a conflict with the pope, England's break with the Roman Catholic Church, and its embrace of Protestantism. Henry established the Church of England in 1532.

New cards
65

Anne Boleyn

Henry VIII mistress during the time of the English Reformation, she gave birth to Elizabeth, future queen of England. One of the reasons Henry VIII wanted to get his marriage to Catherine annulled is so that he could marry her.

New cards
66

Charles V

This was the Holy Roman Emperor that called for the Diet of Worms. He was a supporter of Catholicism and tried to crush the Reformation by use of the Counter-Reformation

New cards
67

Counter Reformation

the reaction of the Roman Catholic Church to the Reformation reaffirming the veneration of saints and the authority of the Pope (to which Protestants objected)

New cards
68

Inquisition

A Roman Catholic tribunal for investigating and prosecuting charges of heresy - especially the one active in Spain during the 1400s.

New cards
69

Jesuits

Also known as the Society of Jesus; founded by Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556) as a teaching and missionary order to resist the spread of Protestantism.

New cards
70

council of trent

Called by Pope Paul III to reform the church and secure reconciliation with the Protestants. Lutherans and Calvinists did not attend.

New cards
71

Spanish Armada

The great fleet sent from Spain against England by Philip II in 1588; defeated by the terrible winds and fire ships.

New cards
72

Peace of Augsburg

1555 agreement declaring that the religion of each German state would be decided by its ruler

New cards
73

Edict of Nantes

1598 - Granted the Huguenots liberty of conscience and worship.

New cards
74

Thirty Years War

Protestant rebellion against the Holy Roman Empire ends with peace of westpahlia.1618-48) A series of European wars that were partially a Catholic-Protestant religious conflict. It was primarily a batlte between France and their rivals the Hapsburg's, rulers of the Holy Roman Empire.

New cards
75

Peace of Westphalia

the peace treaty that ended the Thirty Years' War in 1648

New cards
76

empiricism

the view that knowledge originates in experience and that science should, therefore, rely on observation and experimentation

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 27 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 8360 people
Updated ... ago
4.7 Stars(31)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard59 terms
studied byStudied by 102 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard300 terms
studied byStudied by 17 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard30 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard71 terms
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(3)
flashcards Flashcard90 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard31 terms
studied byStudied by 32 people
Updated ... ago
4.7 Stars(3)
flashcards Flashcard67 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard112 terms
studied byStudied by 23 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)