Communications Quiz 3

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Experiment

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Experiment

Manipulating a variable or two & observing the effects on another variable or two

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Advantages of Experiments

-Cause & Effect Relationship -Gives you control over the environment you bring the experiment into

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Limitations of Experiments

-People can act differently in labs -No external validity -Might not be accurate outside the lab

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Survey's

Involves collecting information from a large group of people on a large group of topics

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Advantages of Surveys

-Studies how people perceive their worlds -Larger samples(compared to experiments)

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Limitations of Surveys

People can LIE 1)to mess with you 2) to try and get what you want to hear 3)try and make themselves look good

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Available Data

Looking at things that already exist

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Advantages of Available Data

-Non-reactive -Don't have to rely on someone's memory -Great way to study the past

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Limitations of Available Data

Sometimes the data does not exist

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Field Research

Observing someone's behavior/communication in the natural setting

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Advantages of Field Research

-Watching it in real time(no lying) -Lets you study things you can't stimulate in a lab

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Limitations of Field Research

-NO Control -Need the ability to be observant in a non-bias way

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Unit of Analysis

Individuals Dyads Groups Organizations

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Independent Variable

Think Predictor -Impact on others -Cause (only in an experiment)

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Dependent Variable

Think Outcome -being influenced/being impacted-Effect (only in an experiment)

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Intervening Variable

In Between predictor & outcomes/independent & dependent

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Control Variables

variables researchers want to be held constant throughout the duration on the study

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Qualitative Variables

Think Type -Looking at different categories

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Quantitative Variables

Think amount/numbers -Always counting & comparing

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Shape of the Relationsip

Positive Relationship: Variables move in the SAME direction Negative Relationship: Variables more in the OPPOSITE direction Curvilinear Relationship: Relationship between variables MOVE from one point to another Independent: NO relationship

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Strength of the Relationship: Correlation Coefficient

Further from 0 in either direction (+ or -) = STRONGER

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Strength of the Relationship: Genetic Criteria for Social Sciences

.50(-.50)= STRONG relationship .30(-.30)= MODERATE relationship .10(-.10)= SMALL relationship

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Abstract

Brief summary of the study

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Introduction

Statement of the problem, information we don't have but need

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Literature Review

A write up of a relevant study,occurrences,theories, models...

Includes: Conceptual definitions of Variables Rational or argument for research questions and/or hypothesis Research questions and/or hypotheses

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Methods Section

Blueprint of the study that has to include enough detail for you to replicate the study

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What is in the Methods Section?

-Type of Research -How was the Study Conducted -Who -Operational Definitions

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Results/ Findings Section

What they found objectively (not their opinion) Usually displayed using stats, tables, charts

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Discussion Section

Results are restates in "plain english" Not meant to be objective its meant to be persuasive

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What is in the Discussion Section?

-Explanations -Implications -Limitations -Future Directions

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