History/Systems of Psychology Exam 3 (Savell)

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Act Psychology

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Act Psychology

The name given to Brentano's brand of psychology because it focused on mental operations or functions. Act psychology dealt with the interaction between mental processes and physical events.

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Brentano, Franz Clemens (1838-1917)

Believed that introspection should be used to understand the functions of the mind rather than its elements. __________'s position came to be called act psychology.

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Clever Hans Phenomenon

The creation of apparently high-level intelligent feats by nonhuman animals by consciously or unconsciously furnishing them with subtle cues that guide their behavior.

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Context Theory of Meaning

Titchener's contention that a sensation is given meaning by the images it elicits. That is, for Titchener, meaning is determined by the law of contiguity.

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Creative Synthesis

The arrangement and rearrangement of mental elements that can result from apperception.

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Donders, Franciscus Cornelius (1818-1889)

Used reaction time to measure the time it took to perform various mental acts.

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Ebbinghaus, Hermann (1850-1909)

The first to study learning and memory experimentally.

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Elements of Thought

According to Wundt and Titchener, the basic sensations from which more complex thoughts are derived.

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Feelings

The basic elements of emotion that accompany each sensation. Wundt believed that emotions consist of various combinations of elemental feelings.

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General Impression

The thought a person has in mind before he or she chooses the words to express it.

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Husserl, Edmund (1859-1938)

Called for a pure phenomenology that sought to discover the essence of subjective experience.

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Imageless Thoughts

According to Kulpe, the pure mental acts of, for example, judging and doubting, without those acts having any particular referents or images.

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Immediate Experience

Direct subjective experience as it occurs.

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Intentionality

Concept proposed by Brentano, according to which mental acts always intend something. That is, mental acts embrace either some object in the physical world or some mental image (idea).

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Introspection

Reflection on one's subjective experience, whether such reflection is directed toward the detection of the presence or absence of a sensation (as in the case of Wundt and Titchener) or toward the detection of complex thought processes (as in the cases of Brentano, Stumpf, Husserl, and others).

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Kulpe, Oswald (1862-1915)

Applied systematic, experimental introspection to the study of problem solving and found that some mental operations are imageless.

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Mediate Experience

Experience that is provided by various measuring devices and is therefore not immediate, direct experience.

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Mental Chronometry

The measurement of the time required to perform various mental acts.

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Mental Essences

According to Husserl, those universal, unchanging mental processes that characterize the mind and in terms of which we do commerce with the physical environment.

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Mental Set

A problem-solving strategy that can be induced by instructions or by experience and that is used without a person's awareness.

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Muller, George Elias (1850-1934)

Considered one of the early pioneers or giants of experimental psychology, ________ worked in psychophysics, perception, and memory.

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Perception

Mental experience that occurs when sensations are given meaning by the memory of past experiences.

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Phenomenological Methods

The type of introspective analysis that focuses on intact mental phenomena rather than on isolated mental elements.

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Principle of Contrasts

According to Wundt, the fact that experiences of one type often intensify opposite types of experiences, such as when eating something sour will make the subsequent eating of something sweet taste sweeter than it would otherwise.

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Principle of the Heterogony of Ends

According to Wundt, the fact that goal-directed activity often causes experiences that modify the original motivational pattern.

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Principle Toward the Development of Opposites

According to Wundt, the tendency for prolonged experience of one type to create a mental desire for the opposite type of experience.

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Pure Phenomenology

The type of phenomenology proposed by Husserl, the purpose of which was to create a taxonomy of the mind. Husserl believed that before a science of psychology would be possible, we would first need to understand the essences of those mental processes in terms of which we understand and respond to the world.

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Savings

The difference between the time it originally takes to learn something and the time it takes to relearn it.

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School

A group of scientists who share common assumptions, goals, problems, and methods.

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Sensations

A basic mental experience that is triggered by an environmental stimulus.

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Stimulus Error

Letting past experience influence an introspective report.

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Structuralism

The school of psychology founded by Titchener, the goal of which was to describe the structure of the mind.

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Stumpf, Carl (1848-1936)

Psychologist who was primarily interested in musical perception and who insisted that psychology study intact, meaningful mental experiences instead of searching for meaningless mental elements.

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Titchener, Edward Bradford (1867-1927)

Created the school of structuralism. Unlike Wundt's voluntarism, structuralism was much more in the tradition of empiricism-associationism.

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Tridimensional Theory of Feelings

Wundt's contention that feelings vary along three dimension: pleasantness-unpleasantness, excitement-calm, and strain-relaxation.

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Vaihinger, Hans (1852-1933)

Contended that because sensations are all that we can be certain of, all conclusions reached about so-called physical reality must be fictitious. Although fictions are false, they are nonetheless essential for societal living.

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Volkerpsychologie

Wundt's 10-volume work, in which he investigated higher mental processes through historical analysis and naturalistic observation.

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Voluntarism

The name given to Wundt's school of psychology because of his belief that, through the process of apperception, individuals could direct their attention toward whatever they wished.

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Will

According to Wundt, that aspect of humans that allows them to direct their attention anywhere they wish. Because of his emphasis on will, Wundt's version of psychology was called voluntarism.

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Wundt, Wilhelm Maximilian (1832-1920)

The founder of experimental psychology as a separate discipline and of the school of voluntarism.

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Wurzburg School

A group of psychologists under the influence of Oswald Kulpe at the University of Wurzburg. Among other things, this group found that some thoughts occur without a specific referent (that is, they are imageless), the higher mental processes could be studied experimentally, and problems have motivational properties that persist until the problem is solved.

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Adaptive Features

Those features that an organism possesses that allow it to survive and reproduce.

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Binet, Alfred (1857-1911)

Found that following Galton's methods of measuring intelligence often resulted in falsely concluding that deaf and blind children had low intelligence. _______ attempted to measure directly the cognitive abilities he thought constituted intelligence.

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Binet-Simon Scale of Intelligence

The scale Binet and Simon devised to directly measure the various cognitive abilities they believed intelligence comprised. The scale first appeared in 1905 and was revised in 1908 and in 1911.

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Burt, Cyril Lodowic (1883-1971)

Claimed that his studies of identical twins reared together and apart showed intelligence to be largely innate. Evidence suggested that __________ invented his data, and a major scandal ensued.

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Cattell, James McKeen (1860-1944)

Worked with Galton and developed a strong interest in measuring individual differences. _________ brought Galton's methods of intelligence testing to the United States.

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Coefficient of Correlation (r)

A mathematical expression indicating the magnitude of correlation between two variables.

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Correlation

Systematic variation between two variables.

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Darwin, Charles (1809-1882)

Devised a theory of evolution that emphasized a struggle for survival that results in the natural selection of the most fit organisms. By showing the continuity between human and nonhuman animals, the importance of individual differences, and the importance of adaptive behavior, __________ strongly influenced subsequent psychology.

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Eugenics

The use of selective breeding to increase the general intelligence of the population.

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Evolutionary Psychology

A modern extension of Darwin's theory to the explanation of human and nonhuman social behavior (also called sociobiology).

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Factor Analysis

A complex statistical technique that involves analyzing correlations among measurements and attempting to explain the observed correlations by postulating various influences (factors).

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Fitness

According to Darwin, an organism's ability to survive and reproduce.

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Galton, Francis (1822-1911)

Influenced by his cousin, Charles Darwin, was keenly interested in the measurement of individual differences. ____________ was convinced that intellectual ability is inherited and therefore recommended eugenics, or the selective breeding of humans. He was the first to attempt to systematically measure intelligence, to use a questionnaire to gather data, to use a word-association test, to study mental imagery, to define and use the concepts of correlation and median, and to systematically study twins.

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General Intelligence (g)

The aspect of intelligence that, according to Spearman, is largely inherited and coordinates specific intellectual abilities.

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Goddard, Henry Herbert (1866-1957)

Translated Binet's intelligence test into English and used it to test and classify students with mental retardation. __________ was an extreme nativist who recommended that those with mental deficiencies be sterilized or institutionalized. As a result of ____________'s efforts, the number of immigrants allowed into the United States was greatly reduced.

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Hollingworth, Leta Stetter (1886-1939)

Rejected the belief, popular at the time, that women achieve less than males do because they are intellectually inferior to males; instead her explanation emphasized differences in social opportunity. Her career focused on improving the education of both subnormal and gifted students.

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Inclusive Fitness

The type of fitness that involves the survival and perpetuation of copies of one's genes into subsequent generations. With this expanded definition of fitness, one can be fit by helping his or her kin survive and reproduce as well as by producing one's own offspring.

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Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics

Lamarck's contention that adaptive abilities developed during an organism's lifetime are passed on to the organism's offspring.

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Intelligence Quotient (IQ)

Stern's suggested procedure for quantifying intelligence. The intelligence quotient is calculated by dividing mental age by chronological age.

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Lamarck, Jean-Baptiste (1744-1829)

Proposed that adaptive characteristics acquired during an organism's lifetime were inherited by that organism's offspring. This was the mechanism by which species were transformed.

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Malthus, Thomas (1766-1834)

Economist who wrote Essay on the Principle of Population (1798), which provided Darwin with the principle he needed to explain the observations that he had made while aboard the Beagle. The principle stated that because more individuals are born than environmental resources can support, there is a struggle for survival and only the fittest survive.

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Mendel, Gregor (1822-1884)

The monk who is credited with discovering genetics based on his work with pea plants.

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Mental Age

According to Stern, a composite score reflecting all the levels of the Binet-Simon test that a child could successfully pass.

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Mental Orthopedics

The exercises that Binet suggested for enhancing determination, attention, and discipline. These procedures would prepare a child for formal education.

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Natural Selection

A key concept in Darwin's theory of evolution. Because more members of a species are born than environmental resources can support, nature selects those with characteristics most conducive to survival under the circumstances, which allows them to reproduce.

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Nature-Nurture Controversy

The debate over the extent to which important attributes are inherited or learned.

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Pearson, Karl (1857-1936)

Devised the formula for calculating the coefficient of correlation.

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Regression Toward the Mean

The tendency for extremes to become less extreme in one's offspring. For example, the offspring of extremely tall parents tend not to be as tall as the parents.

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Simon, Theodore (1873-1961)

Collaborated with Binet to develop the first test designed to directly measure intelligence.

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Social Darwinism

Spencer's contention that, if given freedom to compete in society, the ablest individuals will succeed and the weaker ones will fail, and this is at it should be.

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Sociobiology

Evolutionary psychology.

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Spearman, Charles (1863-1945)

Using an early form of factor analysis, found that intelligence comprised specific factors (s) and general intelligence (g). He believed the latter to be largely inherited.

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Spencer, Herbert (1820-1903)

First a follower of Lamarck and then of Darwin. __________ applied Darwinian principles to society by saying that society should maintain a laissez-faire policy so that the ablest individuals could prevail. ________'s position is called Social Darwinism.

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Spencer-Bain Principle

The observation first made by Bain and later by Spencer that behavior resulting in pleasurable consequences tends to be repeated and behavior resulting in painful consequences tends not to be.

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Stern, William (1871-1938)

Coined the term mental age and suggested the intelligence quotient as a way of quantifying intelligence.

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Struggle for Survival

The situation that arises when there are more offspring of a species than environmental resources can support.

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Survival of the Fittest

The notion that, in a struggle for limited resources, those organisms with traits conducive to survival under the circumstances will live and reproduce.

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Terman, Lewis Madison (1877-1956)

Revised Binet's test of intelligence, making it more compatible with U.S. culture. _____________, along with Goddard and Yerkes, was instrumental in creating the Army Alpha and Army Beta tests. He also conducted a longitudinal study of gifted children and found that, contrary to the belief at the time, gifted children tended to become healthy, gifted adults.

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Wallace, Alfred Russell (1823-1913)

Developed a theory of evolution almost identical to Darwin's, at almost the same time that Darwin developed his theory.

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Wechsler, David (1896-1981)

Developed a new way of determining IQ scores, which is featured in his two tests—the WAIS (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale) and WISC (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children).

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Yerkes, Robert M. (1876-1956)

Suggested that psychology could help in the war effort (World War I) by creating tests that could be used to place recruits according to their abilities and to screen the mentally unfit from military service. The testing program was largely ineffective and was discontinued soon after the war.

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Adaptive Act

Carr's term for a unit of behavior with three characteristics: a need, an environmental setting, and a response that satisfies the need.

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Angell, James Rowland (1869-1949)

As president of the American Psychological Association and as chairman of the psychology department at the University of Chicago for 25 years, did much to promote functionalism.

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