History Midterm

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God, Gold, Glory Columbus in the Dominican Republic mestizo culture disease Bartolomé de las Casas and the "Black Legend"

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US History

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God, Gold, Glory Columbus in the Dominican Republic mestizo culture disease Bartolomé de las Casas and the "Black Legend"

Spanish conquest

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in Canada trading fur conflicts with the Iroquois Confederacy (Beaver Wars) Jesuit priests

French conquest

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3

fishing and pirating conflicts with the Spanish established roanoke, which failed mercantilism, Virginia Stock Company, tobacco

English conquest

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4

inflation, Columbian exchange, religious syncretism

consequences of Spanish conquest

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5

problems with Spanish, religious problems, shipping and exports

consequences of english conquest

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6

native conflicts

consequences of french conquest

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7

direct representation

American colonies advocated for this type of representation Elected representatives make their own decisions regarding polititcs

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8

virtual representation

British Parliament advocated for this type of representation Parliament speaks on behalf of all British colonies

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9

direct taxation

taxes placed on all goods sold and purchased inside the nation

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10

indirect taxation

taxes placed on trade and export goods

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11

Bacon's Rebellion indentured servitude wasn't working out slaves used for domestic labor and skilled, heavy labor cheap

causes of slavery

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12

Baltimore & Calvert: Catholic haven religious tolerance

Maryland

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13

Separatists that left Holland ended up in Massachusetts

Pilgrims

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14

created for Puritan immigration

Massachusetts Bay Company

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15

John Winthrop church, family, and town theocracy

Massachusetts Bay Colony

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16

joint proprietorship informal separation between north and south Virginia overflow population

Carolina

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17

settled by the Dutch diverse

New York

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owned by Quakers

New Jersey

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19

William Penn, quaker religious persecution

Pennsylvania

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20

debtor's prison slaves and plantations

Georgia

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21

all parts of society represented in theory not many voters taxed colonies for money after the F&I War benign neglect

British government

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22

land speculators vs. French in Ohio Indians sided w/French and British resulted in the Treaty of Paris 1763 and the Proclamation Line

French & Indian War

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23

Stamp Act

tax on legal documents, customs papers, newspapers, almanacs, college diplomas, playing cards, and dice had to bear a special stamp

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the Coercive Acts

Boston Port Act, the Massachusetts Government Act, the Administration of Justice Act, and the Quartering Act

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25

Boston Port Act

Closed the Boston harbor until all the East India tea was paid for

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Massachusetts Government Act

Crown in control of town and colonial government – permission to meet

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Justice Act

Royal officials not tried by colonials

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28

Quartering Act

Soldiers quartered in any uninhabited private home Those leaving Boston to escape control lose home

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29

Sugar Act

lowered the duty on foreign molasses, but tightened enforcement

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30

Tea Act

a bailout of the East India Company by giving them a monopoly on tea trade in Americas

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31

no representation increased taxation increased control colonies thought Britain saw them as inferior

causes of the American Revolution

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32

Boston Tea Party refused to pay taxes consumed fewer British goods boycotts

resistance to British control pre-1776

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33

Chesapeake colonies (Virginia, Maryland, NC)

tobacco cash crop slaves conflicts w Powhatan confederacy lack of industry

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Southern colonies (SC, Georgia)

sugar and rice trade with England slave codes & Stono Rebellion

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35

Middle colonies (NY, NJ, Pennsylvania, Delaware)

Beaver Wars w the Iroquois breadbasket large middle class religious tolerance

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36

New England colonies (Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Connecticut)

slavery not prevalent lots of towns large middle class expanding population leads to decreased religious hold

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37

political parties expanding nation = more govt action American identity NOT unified

post 1804 america

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38

Article 1 of the Constitution

legislative branch (necessary and proper cause) -Congress ~senate ~House of Representatives

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Chief Little Turtles leading Natives against white forces in Ohio and Indiana

conflicts with Natives on the frontier

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Article 2 of the Constitution

executive branch -president + vp -cabinet electoral college

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Article 4 of the Constitution

states, citizenship, new states

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Article 5 of the Constituiton

amendment process

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Article 3 of the Constitution

judiciary branch -supreme court -inferior courts (as necessary)

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Article 7 of the Constitution

ratification

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45

checks and balances

each branch checks the other branch

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46

Article 6 of the Constitution

debt (people assume previous debts from Revolution), supremacy

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47

legislative branch

controls money, taxes, laws, postal service, arts and science, judiciary, war/crime, choose what's necessary and proper

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48

executive branch

commander in chief, treaties (w/Senate), state of the Union, removal, enforces laws

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49

judiciary branch

cases involving US, cases between states

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50

do enslaved people count as citizens how much power does each state get how much power does the federal govt get

conflicts regarding the Articles of the Constitution

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51

characteristics of the AoC

Congress didn't have enough power -couldn't regulate tax or trade states didn’t have to follow federal laws and treaties states had their own laws and didn’t have to follow other states’ laws no executive branch or national court system any amendment required all 13 states’ approval

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52

French & Indian War

what war resulted in the Treaty of Paris 1763

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53

American Revolution

what conflict resulted in the Treaty of Paris 1783

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54

French left British territory

results of treaty of paris 1763

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55

westward expansion into ohio valley and across mississippi river

results of treaty of paris 1783

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called to revise the articles of confederation mainly caused by Shay's Rebellion

Constitutional Convention of 1787

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Bill of Rights

guaranteed individual freedoms from central government for Anti-Federalists first ten amendments

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allowed each state two representatives in Senate allowed a number of representatives in the House based on population

Great Compromise

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federalism

the principle of having a central government in addition to state governments

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Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions

asserted states' rights over federal law freedom of the press freedom to reject federal law

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in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts

why were the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions written

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Jefferson and Madison

who wrote the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions

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63

election of 1792

George Washington and John Adams re-elected

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quasi war

undeclared naval war with the French

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election of 1800

Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr tie for president

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election of 1796

John Adams and Thomas Jefferson

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12th amendment

instituted to prevent opposing president and vp

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1804

Thomas Jefferson was re-elected in

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69

Revolution of 1800

saw a transition of power between opposing factions without bloodshed

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70

George Washington's Presidency

he created a cabinet non-partisan

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71

Judiciary Act of 1789

Judiciary largely undefined until

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72

George Washington

stressed neutrality in the French Revolution

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John Adam's Presidency

Federalist XYZ Affair Quasi War

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Thomas Jefferson's Presidency

co-authored the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions democrat-republican

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75

Hamilton's Economic Plan

report on manufacturers established the first Bank of the US limited tariff implied powers and loose construction for Congress

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Bank of US

part of Hamilton's economic plan signed under Washington

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77

Federalist Papers

85 essays written by Alexander Hamilton & John Jay during 1787-88 Pointed out checks & balances of separation of power: each branch checks the other branches Balance between political factions Had to promise a Bill of Rights

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judicial review

part of the system of checks and balances allows the judiciary branch to check the other branches of federal govt result of Marbury vs. Madison

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79

post 1789 america

new constitution (with amendments) judiaciary act set up court system Bill of Rights – the Anti-Federalist legacy

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80

aristocracy of merit

those who work hard and gain material wealth deserve social recognition

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81

republican motherhood

combined the confidence and abilities of American women into a redefinition of citizenship

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82

political parties

democrat republicans vs federalists george washington warned against these efined by regional and economic interests

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83

causes of the War of 1812

War declared by a split Congress European trade problems British failures to comply with treaties (disrespect) War Hawks = generation of new government officials who had not seen war

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84

results of the War of 1812

Commercial Treaty (1815) = nearly free trade w/England and British Empire Rush-Bagot agreement (1817) set northern boundary of U.S. Defeat of Napoleon ended most problems between Britain and U.S. Indians lost last European ally = must now work with the U.S. government

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85

alexander hamilton and john jay

who wrote the federalists papers

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