Exam 3 notes - Psych 381

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A mental disorder characterized by a struggle between what is real and what is not, typically onset in adolescence or adulthood, involving altered perception, unusual thoughts, and odd behavior.

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Positive symptoms

Behaviors or experiences associated with schizophrenia that are new to the person, including delusions, hallucinations, disorganized thinking, catatonia, and disorganized behavior.

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Negative symptoms

Behaviors associated with schizophrenia that involve a “lack” of symptoms, such as flat affect, lack of meaningful speech, social withdrawal, avolition, and anhedonia.

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Premorbid functioning

Abnormalities that occur before the actual onset of schizophrenia symptoms, including impairments in verbal reasoning, cognitive tasks, and an inability to reason things out.

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Personality Disorders

Chronic mental health conditions are characterized by maladaptive patterns of behavior, thoughts, and emotions. I cause more stress to others than to themselves. Diagnose just to 18 or older. At least 6 months in DSM-5.

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Antisocial Personality Disorder

A personality disorder characterized by a consistent disregard for societal rules, lack of empathy, impulsivity, and a tendency to violate the rights of others.
Don’t experience anxiety when violating rights of others.
with subtypes including Psychopath and Sociopath.

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Delusional Disorder

A mental health condition where individuals have delusions but not as severe as in schizophrenia,
lasting at least 6 months without hallucinations, with types like Erotomania, Grandiosity, Jealousy, Persecution, and Somatic delusions.

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Brief Psychotic Disorder

A condition with a sudden onset of schizophrenia symptoms lasting less than a month, often triggered by severe stressors.

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Symptoms of schizophrenia lasting more than a month but less than 6 months.

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Schizoaffective Disorder

A condition combining symptoms of schizophrenia with mood disorder symptoms like depression or bipolar disorder.

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Major Depressive Disorder with psychotic features

A condition where a patient exhibits symptoms of depression along with delusions and hallucinations.

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Brief psychotic disorder

A mental health condition characterized by delusions, hallucinations, social withdrawal, and inappropriate speech or behavior lasting for a short period, typically less than a month.

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What is the difference between Delusional Disorder and Schizophrenia?

Schizophrenia are more bizarre.

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Psychopath (type of anti-social personality disorder)

Tend to be unemotional and cold-hearted.
Lack of conscience, empathy, and autonomic nervous system arousal (don’t feel the alarm of adrenaline).
Little empathy.

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Sociopath Anti-social personality disorder

More likely to blend in with society.
Less severe than a psychopath
less aggressive.
under interrogation they will get anxiety.

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What are causes of Schizophrenia

  • Biological (embalace of dopamine) —> too much dopamine in the brain.

one parent = 15% chance of getting it

two parents= 50%

  • Neuroanatomy - A large ventricles (open spaces or cavities) in the brain mean less cortex.

  • Prenatal conditions - If mother has infection it increases the probability to develop schizophernia

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What are treatment for Schizophrenia?

  • Psychotherapy and medication

  • Anti-Psychotic (Neuroleptic) → lower dopamine

  • Typical Anti-psychotic (Haldol, Thorazine)

    • Side effect: Tardive Dyskinesia

  • Atypical Anti-Psychotic

    • Block dopamine but increase serotonin.

    • less likely to produce dyskinesia and less likely to produce side effects.

    • Good results working with negative symptoms

  • Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (not FDS- approved)

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How the Anti-Psychotic Neuroleptics works?

It lower Dopamine

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What is called when a patient has all symptoms of depression and some delusions + Hallucinations?

Major Depressive disorder with psychotic features

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Person is suffering from delusion, hallucination, social withdraw, inappropriate reasoning and speech for 3 weeks. Diagnostic>

Brief psychotic disorder

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  •  mistrust and suspiciousness regarding other motives.

  • Very distant from others

  • Don't confide in others;

  • interpret random events to give persona meaning

  • Form of projection. They probably don't like themselves.

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  • Very detached from others people

  • Emotionally could

  • socially isolated

  • no desire to have close relationships

  • very little pleasure in their lives. (anhedonia)

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What is the difference between Schizoid and Schizophrenia

  • Schizoid have more sense on what they say. Don't have delusion. No magical off thinking.

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  • They do have desire to relationship

  • But they have the discomfort in interacting with others, not a lack of desire.

  • peculiar thoughts/behaviors

  • No illusion and hallucination.

  • Magical thinking that doesn't make sense.

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  • Somebody over dramatic or emotional who when you interact with them, is performing.

  • purpose to seek attention

  • A person needs to be the center of attention in any group of people they interact with. When the focus is not them, they become uncomfortable.

  • Tend to flirtation but emotionally shallow. They tend to act seductively to focus on them.

  • More women were diagnosed than men.

  • Women tend to have fewer close girl friends.

  • Relationships are thought to be more intimate than they are.

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Cases of Histrionic

Genetics could cause you to have inherent emotional excitability and overarousal of the sympathetic nervous system.

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  • A person who has an exaggerated sense of self-importance.

  • Strong sense of entitlement; Think things should go their way because of who they are.

  • They are very arrogant and have a lot of fantasies of power and wealth.

  • It is very important to be in position of power. Often, let you and others know how wonderful you are.

  • Overestimate ther talents -they tend devalue their partner or put them down.

  • Low on empathy

  • They tend to be in relationship where they can control the person

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Causes of Narcissism

  • Not muh validation or acknowledging themselves.

  • not much bonding with parents, the only way to get validation was doing well - also, too much validation from siblings and parents' family

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Borderline Personality Disorder

  • A person who has intense and unstable fluctuation in mood, a history of unstable relationships, a hard time regulating their emotions, and a hard for them to soothe (acalmar) themselves.

  • Very impulsive and strong fear of abandonment.

  • Life is viewed as meaningless unless connected to others.

  • They have a overactive amygdala.

  • Develops a lack of stability in the attachment; bounding was inconsistent - sense of emptiness. Never learned how to self-soothe. Being around other people is their only way of self-soothing.

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Avoidant Personality Disorder

  • Fear of rejection

  • very hesitant to enter into a relationship

  • very shy, sense of inadequacy

  • would like to connect with others, but the fear of being rejected is too strong

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  • Overly reliant (dependente) on others

  • Lack self- confidence

  • Overly clinging to someone else

  • see themselves as inadequate and have no belief that they can make the situation better.

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Obsessive- Compulsive Personality Disorder

  • Someone who is extremely orderly

  • have a lot of focus on detail and rules, perfectionistic,

  •  someone who believes there is a wrong and right way to do things

  • Very rigid

  • Would label soups and stuff in cabinet perfectly ordered

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Cause of Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder

Right and wrong ways can be a way to fight against anxiety. They feel as though structure helps anxiety.

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  • Symptoms of schizophrenia that last more than a month, but less than 6 months

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When assessing suicidal patient, what are some indicators?

Check if they are giving away personal things and having specific plan to end

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What are the main differences/similarities between Bipolar Disorder?

Borderline: emptiness/ unstable relationship

similarities = unstable mood

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How would you diagnose someone with suicidal thoughts everyday for 10 days?

Traits of MDD (because 2 weeks)

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IS electroconvulsive therapy (increases the production of neurotransmitters) used today?

yes with severe depression

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Person has been experiencing homelessness, sadness, worthlessness, no pleasure, every day for 3 months. My favorite uncle died 6 months ago.

Major depressive disorder.

(If died 12 months ago Persistent Complex Bereavement Disorder)

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What is the treatment for a person who is diagnosticated with MDD with seasonal patterns (DSM5)?

Expose to daily light therapy, such as fluorescent lights.

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What is the diagnosis for a 52-year-old male, for the last 6 years, a tax account. the first two weeks of April and October suffered from episodes of MDD?

Major depressive disorder (No seasonal because it is not related to sunlight)

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What is the difference bewteen bipolar I and Bipolar II?

Bipolar I: Manic episodes and alternates with episodes of MDD —> moe severe than Bipolar II.

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Why people with bipolar dont want to take meds?

Because they are very grandiose, they think they are productive those phases, and do not want get rid of those episodes

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Are generic meds weaker?

False, same level of strength

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How long for FDA approval?

8-10 years

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What does that mean when medication is prescribed off label?

Not originally intended for the issue they found it can be useful.

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True or false: Most schizophrenics are violent?


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What is percentage schizophrenics diagnosed in the world?

1% people are diagnosticated

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IS there a relationship between Cannabis and Psychotic Disorder?

one can lead other but the only thing we knows is that they are related.

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What age group is the higher risk of suicidal?

The elderly. 65+

Man of 85 and older are 45% higher then any other group

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What is the most typical day for suicide?

Monday and new years eve

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What two professions rank highest in suicide?

Psychiatrists and dentist.

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