Unit 2 History Test

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Placer Mining

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Placer Mining

Extracting minerals by hand using simple tools

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Quartz Mining

Using tools to dig deep for minerals

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Vigilance Committee

Law enforcement volunteers who tracked down criminals

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Open Range

Vast grassland owned by the government

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Long Drive

The movement of cattle north to rail lines

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Chisholm Trail

Popular cattle trail from Texas to Abilene, KS

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Maverick

Stray calves with no identifying symbols

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Barbed Wire

Invention that enabled farms to be fenced off cheap and easily

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Great Plains

Area of land from 100th Meridian to the Rockies

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Homestead Act

1862 law that allowed settlers to gain a tract of land for $10

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Dry Farming

Planting seeds deep in the ground to get moisture

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Sodbuster

People who planted the soil of the Great Plains

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Wheat Belt

Area that encompassed the Dakotas, Nebraska, and Kansas

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Bonanza Farm

Wheat farms that covered up to 50,000 acres

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Nomad

People who roamed the land following buffalo

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Annuity

Payments to reservation residents

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Indian Peace Commission

Government agency that created two large reservations on the plains

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Ghost Dance

A native ritual that celebrated a return of the native way of life

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Assimilate

Being absorbed into American society

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Allotment

Parts of reservations given to individuals

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Dawes Act

1887 law giving each native household 160 acres for farming

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Henry Comstock

Discovered a large silver mine in Nevada

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Nat Love

Former slave who moved west to work cattle

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Stephen Long

Explorer who called the plains the "Great American Desert"

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Red Cloud

Sioux chief who defeated the U.S. army in Wyoming

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Crazy Horse

Sioux warrior who led the defeat of Federman's troops

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Sitting Bull

Sioux chief, religious leader

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George Custer

Commander of the 7th cavalry, lost the Battle of Little Bighorn

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Chief Joseph

Leader of Nez Perce, he surrenders and is exiled to Oklahoma

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When and why did cattle ranching become profitable in the west?

In the 1850's beef became popular

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2 examples of cattle trails

Chisholm Trail and Great Western Cattle Trail

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2 reasons the open range ended

Overgrazing and the invention of barbed wire

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2 reasons American west settled quickly

Gold rush and land

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What were some hardships faced by frontier settlers?

Droughts, floods, fires, blizzards, locust plagues

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2 examples of technology that helped farmers in the west

Steel plow and barbed wire

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How did the destruction of buffalo affect the Native Americans?

Starvation/lack of food, illness, disease

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Battle of Wounded Knee

150-300 Lakota Indians were killed by U.S. troops in southwestern South Dakota

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Positive impacts of the Homestead Act

Allowed people to seek freedom and a better life in the west, gave them up to 160 acres of public land.

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Negative impact of the Homestead Act

They had to provide their own farming tools

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What was the importance of the Ghost Dance to Native Americans?

They believed it was used as a social dance and used for healing practices as well.

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The Indian Peace Commissions was an act of congress formed in these two states:

Oklahoma and South Dakota

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Where did the Chisholm Trail end?

Albilene, KS

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Nebraska's 3 main reservations

Ponca, Winnebago, Sante Sioux

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2 reasons ranchers drove cattle north

Railroads and cattle was worth more

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He was the first commercial seller

Richard Sears

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This was invented to coordinate deliveries on the railroad

Time zones

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Boom towns in the west grew fast and soon turned to what?

Ghost towns

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African Americans who moved south from Kansas looking for land

Exodusters

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What 2 animals helped the plains Indians survive?

Buffalo and horses

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2 reasons why African Americans moved west

New opportunities and chief land

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Final plains Indian war

Battle of Wounded Knee

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