Neuro Block 1

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reticular theory

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reticular theory

nerves communicate through a continuous nerve net (protoplasmic links)

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Golgi method

Silver solution that randomly stains about 1% of neurons in their entirety

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Camillo Golgi

proponent of reticular theory

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Santiago Ramon y Cajal

used Golgi method to provide evidence against reticular theory, no continuity between neurons

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Neuron Doctrine

The hypothesis that the brain is composed of separate cells that are distinct structurally, metabolically, and functionally.

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Ross Harrison

showed that neural processes (dendrites and axon) grow from the cell body when neurons are isolated in culture, axons can extend to target neurons or tissue

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Brainbow

individual neurons stained using genetically encoded fluorescent proteins

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neuron

basic unit of the nervous system; about 86 billion but only 1% work; specialized for reception, conduction, and transmission of electrochemical signals

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dendrites

receive input from other neurons and carry messages towards cell (many per neuron)

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soma

contains nucleus and machinery to maintain life

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axon hillock

integration and initiation of new message; membrane potential here determines if an action potential will be fired

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axon

carries new message away from cell body to another neuron (1 per neuron, but can branch to form axon collaterals)

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terminal bouton

site of neurotransmitter release, "output"

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principle of dynamic polarity

electrical signals within a neuron flow in one direction

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potential

electrical impulse within neurons

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chemical neurotransmitters

communication between a neuron and its target

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sensory neurons

afferent; specialized at one end to be highly sensitive to a particular type of sensory stimulation; conducts impulses from periphery to CNS; may be bipolar or pseudo-unipolar; soma in ganglia

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interneurons

primary neurons of CNS; serve as relay or integration units between afferent and efferent; multipolar

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motor neurons

efferent; receive signals from other neurons and conduct impulses to a muscle; multipolar; soma in spinal cord

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central nervous system

brain and spinal cord; protected inside bone (skull and vertebral column)

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glia

cells that aid and modulate neurons' activities

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ventricles

series of interconnected, fluid filled spaces within the core of the CNS; filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) derived from ependymal cells in choroid plexus

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choroid plexus

a network of blood vessels and cells in the ventricles of the brain; have cilia, which circulate CSF around the CNS

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astrocytes

most abundant type of glia; structural support for neurons; synthesize and regulate NT levels; regulate Blood Brain Barrier (BBB); help maintain proper extracellular chemical environment for neural signaling; "endfeet" interact with capillary endothelial cells to maintain their tight junctions, which comprise BBB

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Blood Brain Barrier (BBB)

limits what can get into brain; small, uncharged molecules pass with ease while big molecules have to be fat soluble or have a transporter

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microglia

immune defense for CNS; change shape, proliferate, and move to site of problem; phagocytize debris, plaques, and pathogens; thought to be impacted in Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Schizophrenia, + pain conditions

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oligodendrocytes

myelinate axons in the CNS

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myelin sheath

fatty tissue that covers the axon of some neurons and helps speed neural impulses

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Schwann cells

myelinate axons in the PNS; facilitates repairs if PNS axons are damaged

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nodes of Ranvier

unmyelinated sections between myelination on an axon

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peripheral nervous system

extends beyond (or exists entirely outside of ) the bony skull and vertebral column, including cranial and spinal nerves

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visceral stimuli

afferent, produced by internal organs

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dorso-ventral axis

The axis in bilateral symmetry that defines the top of an organism from the bottom

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rostro-caudal axis

(relative to forebrain) long head-tail axis; axis for brainstem is perpendicular to that of rest of brain, thus coordinates change accordingly

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anterior-posterior axis

front to back axis

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superior-inferior axis

up and down axis

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proximal/medial

closer to body midline

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distal/lateral

further from body midline

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horizontal/axial

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coronal

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sagittal

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gray matter

made up of cell bodies and dendrites, color comes from nuclei

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white matter

made up of myelinated axons

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nuclei

bundles of gray matter in the CNS

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tracts

bundles of white matter in the CNS

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ganglia

groups of neuron cell bodies in the PNS

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nerves

groups of axons in the PNS

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medulla

<p>part of the brainstem that coordinates basic life functions and reflexes (breathing, heart rate, vomiting, salivation, coughing and sneezing)</p>

part of the brainstem that coordinates basic life functions and reflexes (breathing, heart rate, vomiting, salivation, coughing and sneezing)

<p>part of the brainstem that coordinates basic life functions and reflexes (breathing, heart rate, vomiting, salivation, coughing and sneezing)</p>
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pons

<p>part of the brainstem that includes axons that allow the cerebellum to communicate with the brainstem and cerebral cortex</p>

part of the brainstem that includes axons that allow the cerebellum to communicate with the brainstem and cerebral cortex

<p>part of the brainstem that includes axons that allow the cerebellum to communicate with the brainstem and cerebral cortex</p>
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midbrain

<p>part of the brain that contains structures involved in processing visual and auditory information</p>

part of the brain that contains structures involved in processing visual and auditory information

<p>part of the brain that contains structures involved in processing visual and auditory information</p>
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tectum

<p>sensory region of midbrain; contains colliculi</p>

sensory region of midbrain; contains colliculi

<p>sensory region of midbrain; contains colliculi</p>
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superior colliculus

<p>part of the midbrain that receives visual sensory input</p>

part of the midbrain that receives visual sensory input

<p>part of the midbrain that receives visual sensory input</p>
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inferior colliculus

<p>part of the midbrain involved in auditory processing</p>

part of the midbrain involved in auditory processing

<p>part of the midbrain involved in auditory processing</p>
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tegmentum

<p>motor region of the midbrain; contains dopaminergic neurons</p>

motor region of the midbrain; contains dopaminergic neurons

<p>motor region of the midbrain; contains dopaminergic neurons</p>
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ventral tegmental area (VTA)

<p>part of the midbrain associated with reward pathway + dopamine</p>

part of the midbrain associated with reward pathway + dopamine

<p>part of the midbrain associated with reward pathway + dopamine</p>
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substantia nigra (SN)

part of midbrain that initiates movements; black substance

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cerebellum

<p>motor planning, motor learning, and balance</p>

motor planning, motor learning, and balance

<p>motor planning, motor learning, and balance</p>
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Diencephalon

thalamus and hypothalamus

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thalamus

<p>relay for information going to and coming from the neocortex</p>

relay for information going to and coming from the neocortex

<p>relay for information going to and coming from the neocortex</p>
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hypothalamus

<p>regulates body temperature, hunger, thirst, and sexual behavior; regulates hormone release by coordinating with the pituitary</p>

regulates body temperature, hunger, thirst, and sexual behavior; regulates hormone release by coordinating with the pituitary

<p>regulates body temperature, hunger, thirst, and sexual behavior; regulates hormone release by coordinating with the pituitary</p>
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basal ganglia

<p>group of interconnected structures that curve in a C shape around the thalamus that control planning and initiation of voluntary, smooth movement</p>

group of interconnected structures that curve in a C shape around the thalamus that control planning and initiation of voluntary, smooth movement

<p>group of interconnected structures that curve in a C shape around the thalamus that control planning and initiation of voluntary, smooth movement</p>
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limbic system

group of interconnected structures related to emotions, motivation, aggression, memory; the 4 Fs- fleeing, feeding, fighting, sexual behavior

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amygdala

<p>emotions (fear, reward, anger, etc)</p>

emotions (fear, reward, anger, etc)

<p>emotions (fear, reward, anger, etc)</p>
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hippocampus

<p>memory formation and storage</p>

memory formation and storage

<p>memory formation and storage</p>
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cerebral cortex (cerebrum)

<p>80% of brain volume; higher order functions; expanded most in evolution</p>

80% of brain volume; higher order functions; expanded most in evolution

<p>80% of brain volume; higher order functions; expanded most in evolution</p>
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frontal lobe

<p>motor control and executive functions (planning, inhibition of inappropriate behaviors, working memory)</p>

motor control and executive functions (planning, inhibition of inappropriate behaviors, working memory)

<p>motor control and executive functions (planning, inhibition of inappropriate behaviors, working memory)</p>
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parietal lobe

<p>somatosensory and tactile processing</p>

somatosensory and tactile processing

<p>somatosensory and tactile processing</p>
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temporal lobe

<p>auditory processing, language and memory</p>

auditory processing, language and memory

<p>auditory processing, language and memory</p>
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occipital lobe

<p>visual processing</p>

visual processing

<p>visual processing</p>
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central sulcus

<p>separates parietal and frontal lobes</p>

separates parietal and frontal lobes

<p>separates parietal and frontal lobes</p>
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Sylvian fissure (lateral sulcus)

<p>separates temporal lobe from frontal and parietal lobes</p>

separates temporal lobe from frontal and parietal lobes

<p>separates temporal lobe from frontal and parietal lobes</p>
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longitudinal fissure

<p>separates cerebral hemispheres</p>

separates cerebral hemispheres

<p>separates cerebral hemispheres</p>
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gyrus

ridge/bump

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sulcus

groove/crack

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fissure

infolding of gyrus/sulcus

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postcentral gyrus

<p>directly caudal to central sulcus; contains primary somatosensory cortex, which processes touch and pain information</p>

directly caudal to central sulcus; contains primary somatosensory cortex, which processes touch and pain information

<p>directly caudal to central sulcus; contains primary somatosensory cortex, which processes touch and pain information</p>
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precentral gyrus

<p>directly rostral to central sulcus; contains primary motor cortex, which helps plan movements and sends motor signals to spinal cord</p>

directly rostral to central sulcus; contains primary motor cortex, which helps plan movements and sends motor signals to spinal cord

<p>directly rostral to central sulcus; contains primary motor cortex, which helps plan movements and sends motor signals to spinal cord</p>
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corpus callosum

<p>where axons cross between brain hemispheres</p>

where axons cross between brain hemispheres

<p>where axons cross between brain hemispheres</p>
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31

of pairs of spinal nerves

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cauda equina

<p>collection of spinal nerves below the end of the spinal cord</p>

collection of spinal nerves below the end of the spinal cord

<p>collection of spinal nerves below the end of the spinal cord</p>
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dorsal horn

<p>contains sensory axons (afferents) entering spinal cord</p>

contains sensory axons (afferents) entering spinal cord

<p>contains sensory axons (afferents) entering spinal cord</p>
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ventral horn

<p>contains cell bodies of motor neurons (efferents)</p>

contains cell bodies of motor neurons (efferents)

<p>contains cell bodies of motor neurons (efferents)</p>
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cranial nerves

send motor commands to and receive sensory information from the head and neck; emerge from the brain; 12 pairs

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olfactory (I)

sensory nerve; sense of smell

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optic (II)

sensory nerve; vision

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oculomotor (III)

motor nerve; eye movement (papillary constriction/accommodation, eyelid muscles)

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trochlear (IV)

motor nerve; eye movement (intorsion, downward gaze)

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trigeminal (V)

sensory/motor nerve; somatic sensation of face, mouth, and cornea; muscles of mastication

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abducens (VI)

motor nerve; eye movement (abduction or lateral movement)

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facial (VII)

sensory/motor nerve; facial expressions; taste from anterior tongue; lacrimal and salivary glands

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vestibulocochlear (VIII)

sensory nerve; hearing and balance

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glossopharyngeal (IX)

sensory/motor nerve; sensation and taste of posterior tongue; carotid baroreceptors and chemoreceptors

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vagus (X)

sensory/motor nerve; autonomic gut functions; larynx and pharynx sensation; vocal cord muscles; swallowing

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spinal accessory (XI)

motor nerve; shoulder and neck muscles

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hypoglossal (XII)

motor nerve; tongue movements

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Somatic Nervous System (SNS)

part of PNS that controls voluntary movements of skeletal muscles

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autonomic nervous system (ANS)

part of PNS that controls involuntary bodily functions

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sympathetic division

part of ANS that arouses the body to expend energy; fight or flight

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parasympathetic division

part of ANS that calms body to conserve and maintain energy; rest and digest

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preganglionic neurons

neurons involved in ANS that originate in CNS; cell bodies in lateral horn of spinal cord/brain stem; project to postganglionic neurons

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