BIO307: Test #3: Chapter 14: Cardiovascular

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septum

Dividing walls between the chambers of the heart

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Pulmonary Arteries

Carry blood from heart to lungs

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Pulmonary Veins

carry blood from lungs to heart

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resistance

(in relation to fluid), resistance increases as length of tube and viscosity of fluid increases, and as radius of tube decreases. Radius has the largest effect of resistance.

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Electrocardiogram (ECG)

surface recording of the electrical activity of the heart

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Autorhythmic Cells

Cells that depolarize spontaneously, having an unstable membrane potential which is referred to as the pacemaker potential

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Vasodilation

widening of blood vessels as a result of relaxation of blood vessel muscular walls

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Vasoconstriction

narrowing of blood vessels resulting from contraction of muscular wall of the vessels

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Pericardium

a serous membrane with two layers that surrounds the heart, consists of outer fibrous layer and inner double serous membrane

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Myocardium

Cardiac muscular tissue of the heart, striated muscle

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Systole

Contraction phase of cardiac cycle

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Diastole

relaxation phase of cardiac cycle

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Stroke Volume

amount of blood pumped by one ventricle during one contraction

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End-Systolic Volume

volume of blood in the ventricles at the end of contraction

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Ejection Fraction

percent of EDV (end diastolic volume) ejected with one contraction (stroke volume / EDV)

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Order of Blood

Heart -> Arteries -> Arterioles -> Capillaries -> Venules -> Veins -> SVC/IVC -> Heart

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Blood Flow vs Pressure Gradient

Blood flows down the pressure gradient, rate of blood flow is proportional the blood pressure difference between the two sites.

Blood Vessel Radius to Resistance: a 4th power relationship:

Ex: Do the larger number over the smaller number, the factor ^ 4 is the difference

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Label Heart Exterior

knowt flashcard image
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Label Heart Interior

knowt flashcard image
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Heart Valves

ensure unidirectional blood flow, are like gates, open and close to allow blood to flow from one area of the heart to another

Atrioventricular Valves: between atrium and ventricles Semilunar: between ventricle and arteries

Issues:

Prolapse: when a chordae fails, valve is pushed back into atrium during ventricular contraction

If a valve fails, the blood would not have the control system to prevent blood from flowing backward (can be seen moving backwards through the chambers on ultrasound)

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Muscle Cells and Gap Junctions

Ions are transported between adjacent cells to allow for the electrical signaling for the pacemaker potential throughout the cardiac muscle

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Spontaneous Generation of Action Potential in Heart

Pacemaker potential is created by autorhythmic cells

Pathway: Sinoatrial (SA) Node -> Internodal Pathways -> Atrioventricular (AV) Node -> Atria -> Septum -> Apex of the Heart -> Upward through the Ventricle

<p>Pacemaker potential is created by autorhythmic cells</p><p>Pathway: Sinoatrial (SA) Node -&gt; Internodal Pathways -&gt; Atrioventricular (AV) Node -&gt; Atria -&gt; Septum -&gt; Apex of the Heart -&gt; Upward through the Ventricle</p>
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ECG/EKG Reading:

P wave: atrial depolarization P-R segment: conduction through AV node and AV bundle QRS complex: ventricular depolarization T wave: ventricular repolarization

<p>P wave: atrial depolarization P-R segment: conduction through AV node and AV bundle QRS complex: ventricular depolarization T wave: ventricular repolarization</p>
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ECG Reading W/ Depolarization Events

Start: superior atria depolarization = P wave

medial atria + P-Q + P-R segment = conduction through AV node

Septum = Q wave

Apex of the Ventricle = R wave

Depolar. of Ventricles = S Wave

Contraction of Ventricles = S - T segment

Ventric. Repolarization = T wave

<p>Start: superior atria depolarization = P wave</p><p>medial atria + P-Q + P-R segment = conduction through AV node</p><p>Septum = Q wave</p><p>Apex of the Ventricle = R wave</p><p>Depolar. of Ventricles = S Wave</p><p>Contraction of Ventricles = S - T segment</p><p>Ventric. Repolarization = T wave</p>
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Wiggers Diagram

Shows QRS complex

<p>Shows QRS complex</p>
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Events of Cardiac Cycle

  1. Late Diastole: both sets of chambers relaxed, ventricles fill passively

  2. Atrial Systole: small amount of blood enters ventricles

  3. Isovolumic Ventricular Contraction: AV valves close once cavity fills, doesn't open semilunar valves until volume of ventricle fills up [EDV, end diastolic volume] = Max Blood Volume of Ventricle

  4. Ventricular Ejection: Semilunar valves open due to ventricular pressure

  5. Isovolumic ventricular relaxation: ventricles relax, ventricular pressure falls, semilunar valves now close [ESV, end systolic volume] = Minimum Blood Volume in Ventricles

<ol><li><p>Late Diastole: both sets of chambers relaxed, ventricles fill passively</p></li><li><p>Atrial Systole: small amount of blood enters ventricles</p></li><li><p>Isovolumic Ventricular Contraction: AV valves close once cavity fills, doesn&apos;t open semilunar valves until volume of ventricle fills up [EDV, end diastolic volume] = Max Blood Volume of Ventricle</p></li><li><p>Ventricular Ejection: Semilunar valves open due to ventricular pressure</p></li><li><p>Isovolumic ventricular relaxation: ventricles relax, ventricular pressure falls, semilunar valves now close [ESV, end systolic volume] = Minimum Blood Volume in Ventricles</p></li></ol>
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Cardiac Output

CO = SV * HR

^ Venous Return: CO increases ^ Blood Volume: CO increases ^ Sympathetic Activity: CO increases (epinephrine direct relationship on HR) ^ Parasympathetic Activity: CO decreases (Ach. direct relationship on HR) ^ Heart Rate: CO increases ^ SV: CO increases

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Factors Normally Affect Venous Return

EDV directly affects Venous Return (amount of blood returning to heart from venous circulation)

Factors Affecting it:

  1. Contraction/Compression of Veins Returning Blood

  2. Pressure changes in abdomen and thorax during breathing (the respiratory pump)

  3. Sympathetic innervation

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