Imperialism US History II

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imperialism

the policy in which stronger nations extend their economic, political, or military control over weaker territories

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economic ways to extend control

thirst for new markets while going through Industrial Revolution -- access to natural resources/raw materials; crop limitations of the US that other areas could grow for them -- sugar; factories made a lot of product, supply went up, while demand went down, making prices go down. they wanted new markets to sell off over production

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military ways to extend control

desire for military strength -- territories/bases all over the world would give the optics of being strong/powerful --> military threat and take over; military bases all over -- territories by opponents to become threat; easy attack of threats

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political ways to extend control

belief in cultural superiority -- spread democracy to "weaker, inferior" territories to lift them up, making us more powerful; spread Christianity to inferior religions

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American businessmen, Protestant missionaries, and imperialists

biggest proponents of Imperialism

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to make $$ in new markets and from selling off overproduction

why businessmen supported imperialism

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to spread Christianity

why protestant missionaries supported imperialism

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imperialist

government officials interested in building up military strength

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Alfred Mahan

imperialist focused on American becoming a naval powerhouse, who called for the construction of a canal going from the Atlantic to the Pacific (aka the Panama Canal)

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frontier thesis

in order to sell imperialism to the American public, it was said that the US had fulfilled Manifest Destiny, and without expansion, their economy would become stagnant and they can only grow by taking over outside territories across the world.

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jingoism

belief in an aggressive foreign policy-- willing to go to war. basically imperialists X 1000 = jingoists (Teddy Roosevelt is example)

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why was Russia looking to sell Alaska?

they believed there were no resources, it was difficult to defend with no safe way of getting there over treacherous waters

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Henry Seward

secretary of state, purchases Alaska on half of the United States for a few million dollars

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Seward's Folly/ Seward's Icebox

Seward was blasted in the press, who thought Alaska was useless like the Russians

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timber, minerals, and later oil

explorers found that Alaska was a great source of these natural resources, proving the press wrong

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America's business relationship with Hawaii

in 1867, Hawaii had sugar crop and the king agreed to export sugar tax free to the US, making tons of businessmen move to Hawaii to grow sugar and be in change to export to US

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puppet

the king was the businessmen's ___________; he did whatever they wanted

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the Hawaiian constitution

the king amended this to give American businessmen rights and powers that even the Native Hawaiians did not have

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1892

king dies, leaving the fate of the businessmen up to the successor, his sister

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Queen Lil

"Hawaii for Hawaiians" -- not here to cater to businessmen, she upended the advantages put in place and gave businessmen nothing

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annexed

the businessmen reached out to president McKinley to request that Hawaii be _________, but he refused

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under house arrest

the businessmen storm Queen Lil's house and trap her, putting her __________________________________

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Sanford Dole

"president" of Hawaii, he was the businessman in charge now

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1898

Hawaii becomes a US territory after President McKinley steps in to annex Hawaii to tamp down any rebels

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Guam, Philippines, Cuba, Puerto Rico, outposts in Africa

Spain is falling apart, only having four territories left out of their previously huge empire and losing power quickly

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Cubans' first revolt

failed, but successfully forced Spain to abolish slavery because they were weak/running out of power and wanted to make the Cubans happy. However, it only caused them more money problems because now they had to fund their laborers.

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Cuban plantations

US invested $$ in these

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Jose Marti

led the second Cuban revolution from NY in exile, and he utilized guerilla warfare that Spain couldn't handle, deliberately destroying property because they wanted to lure the US into this conflict to side with Cuba

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heavy American invests

destroyed property and plantations with what to get their attention, but it was not enough

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US Newspapers

see an opportunity to get the US to go to war, plus the war drama sells paper to make them money

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Hearst & Pulitzer

do the most to get America into the war and are the biggest instigators; told photographers to take "shady" pictures in Cuba so they can spin a story

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yellow journalism

exaggerated style of writing meant to lure in the reader or just enrage them -- lying to make them mad or but the newspaper

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"You'll furnish the pictures, and I'll furnish the war"

Hearth and Pulitzer told this to the photographers to get them to give them "incriminating" pictures to tell a story of horror in Cuba

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Valeriano "Butcher" Weyler

sent by Spain to Cuba to restore order, he put Cubans into concentrations camps, where innocent civilians were held so they couldn't attack

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De Lome Letter and the USS Maine

two major headlines that lead the US to War -- all that were necessary for the American public to demand war and McKinley to declare it

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De Lome Letter

a telegraph that had been intercepted from a Spanish foreign minister to a friend, H&P took unrelated pieces into one excerpt out of context; mocked McKinley for being weak and the Spanish could do whatever they wanted--> enrages Americans

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USS Maine

naval ship sent to Cuba to bring back American citizens so they weren't caught in the crossfires of war; as it's docked in the Havana harbor, it mysteriously explodes-- front page says the Spanish did it

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Teller Amendment

added to the US' declaration of war and state that the US was not fighting to win Cuba as a territory, but for their independence

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Philippines

the first battle of the Spanish-American war was fought here to split Spain's troop between here and Cuba, weakening both armies; George Dewey led the attack

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Filipinos

supported Dewey and America, so their leader says if the Philippines fight with America, they will grant their independence/freedom-- this was the only reason they agreed to fight

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naval superiority

America won because of this in the 3 month war, while their land forces were not adequately trained

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Rough Riders

volunteer cavalry that fought in Cuba led by Teddy Roosevelt

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San Juan Hill

US victory here led to the end of the war

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armistice

US and Spain signed this on August 12th

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Terms of the Treaty of Paris

Spain freed Cuba, and turned over Guam and Puerto Rico to the US; Spain also sold the Philippines to the US for $20 million (breaking promise)

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USS Maine cw

American ship that mysteriously exploded in the Havana Harbor

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George Dewey

American leader in charge of forces in the Philippines

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Panama

Alfred Mahan argued for a canal to be built here in order to strengthen the US navy

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Seward's Folly

the press nicknamed the purchase of Alaska this because they believed it was a terrible decision to purchase

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yellow journalism cw

an exaggerated style of writing that is intended to lure or enrage the reader

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Alfred Mahan

a prominent supporter of American imperialism who said it was necessary in order for the US Navy to become a world power

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Emilio Aguinaldo

leader of the Filipinos; was promised independence by the Americans

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De Lome Letter cw

an intercepted telegram written by a Spanish foreign minister that called McKinley a weak president

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naval superiority cw

the main reason why America easily won the war against the Spanish was because of our....

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the Philippines

the Treaty of Paris sold the US...

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imperialism cw

stronger nations taking over weaker territories economically, politically, or militarily

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timber and minerals

after purchasing Alaska, America discovered it was rich in these natural materials

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Treaty of Paris

this peace agreement ended the Spanish-American war

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Sandford Dole

US businessman who was declared the president of Hawaii

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Teller Amendment cw

this declared that the US was fighting for Cuban independence and they would have their independence after the war was over

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Valeriano Weyler

Spanish general sent to Cuba to restore order

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Russia

they sought to sell Alaska because they viewed it as worthless

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Hearst and Pulitzer

two American journalists infamous for fanning the flames of war through their publication

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Jose Marti cw

Cuban revolutionary that led the second revolution from exile

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Queen Lil cw

declared a "Hawaii for Hawaiians" agenda

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Guam and Puerto Rico

the Treaty of Paris gave the US these two territories

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Russo-Japanese War

1904 - Japan declared war on Russia for imperial reasons -- fighting over two territories

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Korea and Manchuria

what 2 territories were Japan and Russia fighting over?

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massive surprise attack

Japan staged a _____________________________________________ on Russia's Pacific fleet -- take out huge chunk of the fleet

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lose; running out of money

Russia feels they will ____; Japan is what?

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Japan's huge advantage

winning, so they would get a lot of things out of the war if they end it now

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Theodore Roosevelt

peacemaker -- to mediate peace negotiations between Japan (who has many demands) and Russia

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end result of TR's peace talks

half of Sakhalin Island, Korea, Port Arthur & South Manchurian Rail Road (trade benefits, plus it protects our Chinese interest), and Russia keeps Siberia

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Nobel Peace Prize

TR was awarded this in 1906-- first US president to receive this, giving the US a high stature on the world stage

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Japanese treatment in Western US

Japanese immigrants faced increased hostility/discrimination in the west, California specifically. Tensions were high. Communities were segregated between Japanese and Americans, who felts immigrants were "stealing" American jobs -- justified shoving them out of "white America"

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Gentleman's Agreement

TR and Japanese government in response to terrible treatment in California. Teddy agreed to intervene and end discrimination and segregation going on in California. Japanese government agreed to cut back significantly on immigrants to the US, specifically men only -- Teddy thought he looked weak for doing this

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Great White Fleet

fleet of huge and new naval ships sent on worldwide tour to dock in various ports in foreign nations so the citizens can look up in awe -- huge flex on Teddy's behalf -- criticism/waste of resources; most impressive aspect of TR's foreign policy that intimidated the world w/o a single shot

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French Failure with the Panama Canal

Teddy chose Panama out of convience-- a private French company had started building the canal but went bankrupt, and they were looking to sell to the US, who had agreed to build partner canal with Great Britain

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Hay-Pauncefote Treaty

Britain cedes any control of canal, allowing the US to build it by itself

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Colombia

Panama was controlled by this nation that had to agree to build the canal

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Hay-Herran Treaty

the Colombian government sends representative to negotiate -- Panama grants the US control of canal, but the Colombian gov rejects, making Teddy unhappy

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Colombia Problems

Panama revolts and becomes independent after Teddy instigates revolution

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Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty

US can purchase canal and rent annually

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malaria

laborers kept falling ill with unknown disease, affecting the construction

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