Immune (Lymphoid) System Coloring Page Review

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Immunity

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Immunity

an anatomic state of security against disease

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Natural immunity

exists independent of any specific microorganismal interaction with a lymphocyte

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Phagocytes participate in both ________ and _______ immunity

natural, acquired

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Lymphocytes participate in ________ immunity and enhance _______ immunity

acquired, natural

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Natural immunity operates indiscriminately against

microorganisms and degenerated cells/cell parts

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Natural immunity 1-5:

  1. Anatomic barriers physically resist microorganismal invasion

  2. Phagocytes approach their prey from the blood

  3. Phagocytes approach their prey from connective tissue

  4. Phagocytes engulf their prey (phagocytosis)

  5. Phagocytes destroy their prey with lysosomal enzymes

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Skin or mucous membranes are examples of what?

anatomic barriers

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Anatomic barriers physically resist

microorganismal invasion

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Phagocytes approach their prey from the _____ or _______ ______, engulf them and destroy them with ______ ______.

blood, connective tissues, lysosomal enzymes

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Process in which the phagocytes engulf their prey

phagocytosis

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The name given to several soluble proteins found in the body fluids which then activated attach to microorganisms, enhancing their phagocytosis

complement

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Example of tissue irritation:

disruption by a splinter

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Tissue irritation induces

an inflammatory response which involves both natural and acquired immunity

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Acquired immunity involves diverse but specific lymphocyte responses to the presence of

antigen

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A specific lymphocytic reaction to antigens

immune response

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An immune response is characterized by the _______ and _______ of lymphocytes followed by the destruction of antigens

activation, proliferation

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Two kinds of acquired immunity are possible based on lymphocyte types:

humoral immunity and cellular immunity

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Inherent in both kinds of immunity are:

specificity and diversity of response, retention of cellular memory of antigen, and the ability to recognize self from non-self among the body's proteins

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Humoral (fluid-related) immunity is characterized by

B lymphocytes being activated by antigen, proliferating, forming memory (M) cells, secreting antibody, and forming plasma cells which secrete antibody

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Antibodies are _____ _____ formed in response to a _____ _____ and attached to it at the _______ _____ ______, facilitating its phagocytosis

complex proteins, specific antigen, antigenic determinant site

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Cellular immunity is characterized by

T lymphocytes being activated by antigens attached to antigen presenting cells

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Antigen presenting cells

phagocytes

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T cells differentiate into _____ T lymphocytes and ______ T lymphocytes

helper, cytolytic

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Helper T lymphocytes

enhance humoral immunity by activating B cells, augment the inflammatory response, activate phagocytes with stimulating factors (lymphokines), and form memory (M) cells

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Cytolytic T lymphocytes

bind to and destroy infected cells, and form memory cells.

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Memory cells

recognize specific structural characteristics of the antigens encountered ("memory") and facilitate rapid immune responses on subsequent exposure to those antigens

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AIDS

Acquired Immuno-Deficiency Syndrome

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AIDS is characterized by

a marked reduction of functions by immune cells

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A marked reduction of functions by immune cells

immunosuppression

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AIDS is caused by

an infection of phagocytes and lymphocytes with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

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HIV is transferred from one person to another via

body fluids, mainly blood and semen

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Once in body fluids , HIV ______ _______ attach to specific _______ on the surface of the cell membranes of cell and _______ of the virus usually follow

surface molecules, receptors, endocytosis

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Endocytosis of a virus

infection

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The HIV converts its genetic material (RNA) into DNA by means of an enzyme called _______ _______ attached to the viral RNA

reverse transcriptase

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This new viral DNA segment is then incorporated into the DNA of the host cell. This integrated DNA is called ______ DNA

proviral

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Proviral DNA is capable of producing viral RNA which provides the

"blueprint" (instructions) for the synthesis of viral proteins in the host cell, and the subsequent construction of infected virus (viral particles, virions)

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Latency is

the suspension or slowed progression of the manifestations of a disease

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How many years until the normal activities of daily living can be carried on without the symptoms/sings of life-threatening immunosupression?

two to ten

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AIDS becomes activated when

infected cells disburse the viral particles to other T cells and phagocytes, or when those infected cells cease responding to antigenic stimuli

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Immune function is usually suppressed due to the destruction of _________ by the infective process and the rapid depression of ______ _______

T lymphocytes, cellular immunity

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T memory cells decline in numbers and

related antigen memory is impaired

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First step of HIV infection:

immune function is initially suppressed due to the destruction of T lymphocytes by the infective process

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Steps 2-12 of HIV infection (the rapid depression of cellular immunity):

  1. T memory cells decline in numbers, and related antigen memory is impaired

  2. T cell-enhanced phagocytosis is diminished

  3. Inflammatory responses are limited

  4. Increase in antigen numbers and activity

  5. Defective neurotransmitter functions, memory loss and other neurologic deficits

  6. B lymphocytes fail to proliferate in response to antigen due to depleted T cell-related stimuli

  7. Sharp reduction of their numbers and those of B memory cells

  8. Reduction in number of plasma cells

  9. Reduction in number of antibodies

  10. Large lymphocytes are reduced both in number and activity

  11. Formation of neoplasms (cancer)

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Phagocytes of the brain and spinal cord

microglia

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Neurologic deficits

encephalopathy

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Neoplasms

cancer

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Microorganismal access to the unprotected body

opportunistic infections

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HIV infection leads to decreased numbers and functions of __________ and ________ which, in turn, adversely affect many aspects of _______ and ______ immunity, resulting in _______, _______, ______ _______, and _______.

helper T cells, phagocytes, acquired, natural, infections, tumors, neurologic dysfunction, wasting

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