History 2

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muckrakers

Journalists and authors who exposed America's social and economic problems were known as ...

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"How the Other Half Lives"

Jacob Riis shocked America, especially middle-class women, with his book, ...

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Department stores

NY Consumers' League fought for:

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Factories

National Women's Trade Union League & Committees of Public Safety fought for:

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Anti alcohol, Carrie Nation, Tired of seeing women beaten

WCTU & Anti-Saloon League fought for:

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Women's voting rights

Suffrage was for:

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The working class needed their kids to work because they needed their wages to survive

Child labor laws fought for:

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"The Jungle" & Meat Companies

Upton Sinclair wrote the book ... hoping socialism would become popular. Instead, it upset Americans over what was happening in ... companies

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  1. The pure food and drug act 2. Meat inspection act (Combined to make the FDA now)

After President ... read "The Jungles", two laws were passed by congress, they were:

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Intellectuals & Optimistic progressives

Reform takes a radical turn when ... on college campuses believe, if given the power, they can change America for the better. They become known as ...

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In someones head

Most societal change begins ...

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Evolution

Charles Darwin:

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Evolutionist, Eugenics, completely against helping the poor, "survival of the fittest"

Herbert Spencer:

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Industrialists & White man's burden (white people are at the top of the social scale, so they need to reach out to the people on the bottom)

Spencer's ideas will be embraced by many ..., like Andrew Carnegie and also by expansionists who believed in the ... espoused by Rudyard Kipling.

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Traditionalists & modernists

Darwin's ideas will set up an ongoing battle between ... and ... This battle continues (although usually with different names) today

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Liberal Christians

Even some ... tried to make peace with Darwinism by incorporating it into their beliefs

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The communist manifesto, capital (money), saw everything in economic terms, battle between proletariat vs. bourgeoisie

Karl Marx:

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proletariat's (oppressed) vs bourgeoisie (oppressor)

Marx's ideas can be summed up as a battle between the ... and the ...

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private property & collectivism

Marx believed that a fair and just society would only be reached if societies got rid of ... and replaced it with ...

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studied behavior

Sigmund Freud:

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original sin

Freud totally rejected the Christian doctrine of

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your childhood, your relationship with your mother, your past

Freud believed that people's problems revolved around ...

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modernists & material (they were atheists and agnostic) (they believed there was only here, when you die, you just die)

Darwin, Marx, Spencer, and Freud all shared one thing in common. They all were ... They all believed in a ... world only. Thus, the answers to life were not to be found in the Bible (or in any other sacred writing)

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We all own this land, he was anti- private property

What did Woody Guthrie mean by his song "This Land is Your Land, This Land is My Land" ?

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populist movement

Progressives got some of their ideas from a rural movement known as ...

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socialism

Some progressives believed a better economic future for America was when the people owned and controlled the economy through the government (government ownership). This is known as ...

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experts

Progressives did not believe in people should have decision-making power concerning most issues. Thus, they pushed for ... to control most facets of the economy and society.

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pragmatism

Many progressives believed in ... which basically argues that the end result justified the means to bring this about.

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original sin

One of the most important beliefs of most progressives was the rejection of the Christian belief of ... Because they rejected this doctrine, they believed they could actually change human nature for the better.

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utopians

All progressives were idealists and ...

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local, state, national

What were the three venues of change for progressives?

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political machines

On the state level, progressives fought against ...

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  1. direct primaries for parties 2. Initiative petition (way to bypass state legislature) 3. recall petition (petition to vote to fire someone doing a bad job)

Robert LaFollette, republican governor of Washington, pushed for three reforms to fight political machines.

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was a nurse who taught birth control to American women

Margaret Sanger ...

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eugenics

the progressive "scientific" movement to raise the IQ level of America was known as ...

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segregation and sterility measures

The biological effort to get rid of "undesirable" Americans included reducing the number of minorities and low IQ whites through ... and ...

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Margaret Sanger

One of the leaders of American Eugenics was ...

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Theodore Roosevelt

The first of three consecutive progressive-minded presidents was ...

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  1. police commissioner of NYC 2. assistant secretary of Navy 3. national hero 4. despised by republican establishments 5. wealthy, vibrant personality, driven

The basic outline of Theodore Roosevelt's life and career:

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Taft

... is the largest president in US history

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Woodrow Wilson

... won the presidential election of 1912

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  1. take power from states (senators): 17th amendment 2. increase power of presidency: executive orders and openly flouting the constitution 3. increase the number of agencies and the power of the Bureaucracy in Washington: take power from congress and the people and give it to experts

List the 3 ways that Progressive elites believed they could continue the transformation of America on a national level

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Federal Reserve Act

The congressional act to stop Recessions and Depressions via experts controlling the interest rates was ... of 1913

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16th

The Amendment that, for the first time. gave the Federal Government the authority to tax and individual's salary was the ... Amendment

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?

17th Amendment:

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Prohibition; 1. both progressives and traditionalists pushed for this, popular across the USA 2. will lead to several unexpected answers

18th Amendment:

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Women's Suffrage; 1. make more divided, but not the way you may think 2. president Wilson 3. made voting for both genders part of the constitution

19th Amendment:

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  1. people get tired of the "do-gooders" trying to control their lives 2. US constitution hampered the movement - Amendment hard to pass 3. "Liberals" = 1920

What two things will interrupt the Progressive Movement's efforts to build their paradise on earth?

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long-term, short-term, and an emotional spark (bloodshed)

Most wars are the result of 3 things: ... causes, ... causes and a ...

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Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie

Gavrilo Princip assassinated ...

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Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire, Bulgaria) and the Allied Powers (France+colonies, Russia, Great Britain+colonies, Italy+colonies, US)

The opposing sides of The Great War were the ... and the ...

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Trench Warfare

The defining characteristics of The Great War (WW1) was ...

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no-man's land

The area between opposing trenches was known as ...

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over the top

Leaving your trench to attack the opposing side was known as ...

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bolshevik revolution

Germany had to fight in two theaters during the Great War. In 1917, due to the ... Germany was able to leave the Eastern Theater and move over a million troops to the Western Theater

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Trench Foot

A major health problem during the Great War was ...

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US divided, trade with both sides, Wilson wished to mediate, domestic issues, isolationist movement

Why did the United States declare neutrality?

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Great Britain using a blockade

What country (and how) first broke American neutrality

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U-boats and Submarines

In order to break the British blockade of their ports, Germany created a vast fleet of ... commonly known as ...

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Lusitania (May 5th, 1915)

In 1915, Germany angered the American public when it sunk the ... killing 1200 people including 128 Americans

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Zimmerman Telegram (January, 1917)

In 1917, Germany realized it would probably go to war with the United States. They reached out to Mexico via the ...

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What was Germany's offer to Mexico?

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Unrestricted submarine warfare

During the public outrage over the telegram, Germany then declared ... and promptly sank five more American ships (cargo ships)

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war

As a result, the United States Congress declared ... on Germany on April 6, 1917

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  1. economics 2. culture (language) 3. Great Britain seen as mother country 4. Allied propaganda depicts Germany as evil (articles in newspapers) 5. Belief Allies fighting for democracy

Why did the United States ultimately join the Allies?

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John Pershing

The commanding general of the American Expeditionary Force was ...

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"Over There"

The theme song, which became the motto for the Great War was ...

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broadway producer George M. Cohan

Who wrote the defining song of both WW1 and WW2?

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muese-argonne offensive (sept. 26 - nov. 11, 1918)

The Allies, led by American soldiers, broke the German lines during the offensive known as ...

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Alvin York

The greatest hero of WW1 was ...

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Bernard Baruch

... led the War Industries Board

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George Creel

... led the Committee on Public Information

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Rosie the Riveter

President Wilson pushed for women to take the place of men in the economy. A song and then a poster became popular and finally the nickname for women working in factories and other jobs. What were these women called?

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  1. Income tax on corporations 2. Higher income tax on individuals 3. War bonds: helped with morale 4. Borrowing (debt)

What four ways did America pay for the war?

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Spanish Influenza

More people were killed by this disease than combat. What was this disease that killed at least 50 million people in 1918 and 1919?

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Treaty of Versailles

The treaty that officially ended the Great War was the ...

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shell shock

Some American soldiers suffered from ... which today we would call PTSD

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The Red Scare

Due to the communist takeover of Russia and a growing number of socialist and communist parties in the United States, America underwent a period of anxiety and fear known as ...

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Sacco and Vanzetti

The most famous criminal trial of the early 1920s involved what two Italian immigrants?

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Prohibition

In January 1919, the 18th Amendment was ratified. This ushered in a period known as ...

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The Roaring Twenties and The Jazz Age

Nicknamed for the 1920s include ... and ...

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modernism vs traditionalism

The philosophical divide in though was currently known as ... vs ...

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urban vs rural and young vs old

Social differences include ... vs ... and ... vs ...

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1920

Women voted for the first time in a presidential election in ...

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