MedTerm.Ch.4-Muscular System

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Abduction

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64 Terms

1

Abduction

movement of a limb away from the midline of the body

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2

Adduction

movement of a limb toward the midline of the body

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3

Adhesion

a band of fibrous tissue that holds structures together abnormally

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4

Ataxia

the lack of muscle coordination during voluntary movement

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5

Atonic

lacking normal muscle tone or strength

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6

Atrophy

weakness or wearing away of body tissues and structures

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7

Bradykinesia

extreme slowness in movement

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8

Carpal tunnel syndrome

Inflammation and swelling of the tendons that pass through the carpal tunnel, which then create pressure on the median nerve

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9

Chronic fatigue syndrome

a debilitating and complex disorder characterized by profound fatigue that is not improved by bed rest and may be made worse by physical or mental activity

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10

Circumduction

the circular movement at the far end of limb

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11

Contracture

the permanent tightening of fascia, muscles, tendons, ligaments, or skin that occurs when normally elastic connective tissues are replaced with non-elastic fibrous tissues

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12

Compartment Syndrome

compression of nerves and blood vessels due to swelling within the compartment (an enclosed space created by the fascia that separates groups of muscles in the arm or leg)

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13

Dorsiflexion

movement that bends the foot upward at the ankle

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14

Dyskinesia

distortion or impairment of voluntary movement resulting in fragmented or jerky motions

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15

Dystonia

a condition of abnormal muscle tone that causes the impairment of voluntary muscle movement

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16

Electromyography

a diagnostic test that measures the electrical activity within muscle fibers in response to nerve stimulation

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17

Epicondylitis

inflammation of the tissues surrounding the elbow

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18

Ergonomics

the study of human factors that affect the design and operation of tools and the work environment

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19

Exercise Physiologist

a specialist who works under the supervision of a physician to develop, implement, and coordinate exercise programs, and administer medical tests to promote physical fitness

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20

Fasciitis

inflammation of the fascia

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21

Fibromyalgia

a debilitating chronic condition characterized by fatigue, diffuse and or specific muscle, joint, or bone pain, and a wide range of other symptoms

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22

Flexion

act of bending a joint; especially a joint between the bones of a limb so that the angle between them is decreased

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23

Ganglion cyst

a harmless fluid-filled swelling that occurs most commonly on the outer surface of the wrist

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24

Heel spur

a calcium deposit in the plantar fascia nears its attachment to the heel bone

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25

Hemiparesis

slight paralysis or weakness affecting one side of the body

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26

Hemiplegia

total paralysis affecting only one side of the body

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27

Hernia

the protrusion of a part of a structure through the tissues normally containing it

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28

Hyperkinesia

abnormally increased muscle function or activity

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29

Hypotonia

a condition in which there is diminished tone of the skeletal muscles

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30

Impingement syndrome

inflammed and swollen tendons are caught in the narrow space between the bones within the shoulder joint

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31

Innervation

basic cells of the nervous system that allow different parts of the body to communicate with each other.

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32

Insertion

the point where the muscle ends by attaching to a bone or tendon

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33

Intermittent claudication

pain in the leg muscles that occurs during exercise and is relieved by rest

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34

Muscular dystrophy

a group of more than 30 genetic diseases that are characterized by progressive weakness and degeneration of the skeletal muscles that control movement, without affecting nervous system

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35

Myasthenia gravis

a chronic autoimmune disease that affects the neuromuscular junction and produces serious weakness of voluntary muscles

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36

Myocele

the herniation protrusion of muscle substance through a tear in the fascia surrounding it

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37

Myoclonus

the quick involuntary jerking of a muscle or group of muscles

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38

Myofascial release

a specialized soft tissue manipulation technique used to ease the pain of conditions such as fibromyalgia, myofascial pain syndrome, movement restrictions, temporomandibular joint disorders, and carpal tunnel syndrome

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39

Myolysis

the degeneration of muscle tissue

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40

Myoparesis

weakness or slight muscular paralysis

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41

Myorrhaphy

surgical suturing of a muscle

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42

Neuromuscular

pertaining to the relationship between a nerve and muscle

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43

Oblique

slanted or at an angle

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44

Origin

the point where the muscle begins, located nearest the midline of the body or on a less movable part of the skeleton

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45

Paralysis

the loss of sensation and voluntary muscle movements in a muscle through disease or injury to its nerve supply

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46

Paraplegia

paralysis of both legs and the lower part of the body

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47

Physiatrist

a physician who specializes in physical medicine and rehabilitation with the focus on restoring function

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48

Plantar fasciitis

inflammation of the plantar fascia on the sole of the foot, causing foot or heel pain when walking or running

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49

Polymyositis

a muscle disease characterized by the simultaneous inflammation and weakening of voluntary muscles in many parts of the body

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50

Pronation

the act of rotating the arm or leg so that the palm of the hand or sole of the foot is turned downward or backward

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51

Quadriplegia

paralysis of all four extremities

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52

Sarcopenia

the loss of muscle mass, strength, and function that comes with aging

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53

Shin splint

painful condition caused by the tibialis anterior muscle tearing away from the tibia

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54

Singultus

myclonus of the diaphragm that causes characteristic hiccup sound with each spasm; also as hiccups

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55

Sphincter

a ring-like muscle that tightly constricts the opening of a passageway

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56

Sprain

an injury of a joint, such as ankle, knee, or wrist that usually occurs when ligament wrenched or torn

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57

Tendinopathy

the general term for irritation or degeneration of a tendon in any joint, for example in the rotator cuff

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58

Tenodesis

the suturing of the end of a tendon to a bone

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59

Tenolysis

the release of a tendon from adhesions

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60

Tenorrhaphy

the surgical suturing together of the divided ends of a tendon

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61

Tenosynovitis

an inflammation of the sheath surrounding a tendon

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62

Tenotomy

a surgical incision into a tendon

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63

Torticolis

a stiff neck due to spasmodic contraction of the neck muscles that pull the head towards the affected side; also known as wryneck

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64

Transverse

in a crosswise direction

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