Period 4 Part I - APUSH

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Marbury v. Madison (Judicial Review)

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Marbury v. Madison (Judicial Review)

ENABLED SUPREME COURT TO DECIDE IF A LAW WAS CONSTITUTIONAL OR NOT; MORE POWER TO THE COURT; involved feds vs demos

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McCulloch v. Maryland

Maryland tried to tax the Second Bank of the US → fed laws are supreme over state laws; nation bank = wasn’t unconstitutional sooo

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Gibbons v. Ogden (implied powers)

NY was trying to grant a monopoly to a steamboat company which conflicted w/ a charter authorized by congress → NY monopoly was unconstitutional and esta fed gov’s control of interstate commerce

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*Era of Good Feelings

Monroe years marked by a spirit of nationalism, optimism, and goodwill; Feds party said bye and Demo-Repub dominated; unity and harmony wasn’t the whole story: heated debates over tariffs, the bank, etc.; tensions over slavery increasing; peace in parties=illusionary → Demo-repub split into two

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Sectionalism

between the North and South over the issue of slavery; the loyalty to one’s region

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American System

HENRY CLAY; plan to advance economic growth; three parts: protective tariffs (promo merca’ manufacturing & fundraise national transport system (FOR EAST)), national bank (smooth run & nat. Currency (ALL SECTORS)), internal improvements (promo growth for WEST & SOUTH)

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Second Bank of the US

from Clay’s plan → congress adopted protective tariffs and charted this; the first ___’s charter expired (Hamilton’s Brain child)

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Panic of 1819

first major financial crisis since the Constitudtion; 2nd bank tightened credit in effort to control inflation → closed many state banks + unemployment, bankruptcies, and imprisonment for debt skyrocketed; hit hardest in the West bc of high debt and nationalistic beliefs = shook → Western ppl had strong opposition to national bank and debtors’ prisons

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Missouri Compromise

House was imbalanced bc of the pop in the north and the senate was even (11 slave-11 free) UNTIL MiSsoUrI decided to join as a slave state → tipping senate in favor of the south; SO Clay proposed to add missouri as slave and add maine as free and everything north of 36° 30’ was free

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Hartford convention

NE (feds) states threatened to secede from the Union → a meeting held in connecticut to have ⅔ of the states agree on congress decisions; basically the feds trynna get more power

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Impressment

act of forcibly drafting an individual into military service, employed by the British navy against American seamen

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Embargo Act (1807)

prohibited American merchant ships from sailing to any foreign port; backfired and brought more economic damage to US than Brits

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Nonintercourse Act

(post-repeal of embargo act) Madison’s attempt to end economic hardships while remaining neutral → American can trade w/ all except Brits and French

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War of 1812

BETWEEN BRITS AND US; came mostly from the continuous violation of US neutral rights at sea (impressment) and troubles with the Brits in the western frontier (brits “butting in” on their issues with natives in the west)

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Old Ironsides

the US warship Constitution; raised moral by defeating and sinking a British ship off of the coast of Nova Scotia

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Battle of New Orleans

Jan 8, 1815; Jackson OVERBEARINGLY defeated Brits there; troops didn’t know that the treaty (of Ghent) had already been signed

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Treaty of Ghent

ended the War of 1812; Brits had to focus on maintaining peace in Europe and Madison realized the war would have no decisive victory → American peace commissioners traveled to a Belgium town to discuss peace with the Brits

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Monroe Doctrine

declared a US policy towards Europe and Latin America; it stated that the American continents were no longer subjects for future colonization; aka if you colonize here, you are posing a threat to the US and the US will react accordingly to the proposed threat; applauded by Americans but were soon forgotten

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National (Cumberland) Road

states’ rights ppls blocked federal funding for most roads--- this one being a NOTABLE EXCEPTION; extended for over a thousand miles from maryland to Illinois and built using state and federal funds

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Erie Canal

in NY; major event in linking the western farms and eastern cities; stimulated the canal building in other states

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Interchangeable parts

Eli Whitney; a system for assembling rifles that made different parts of the rifle identical for easier assembly and increased efficiency in mass production; became the basis for rifle making

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Corporations

like a joint-stock company but for business; NY passed a law to make it easier for businesses to raise capital by selling STOCK in their venture; only lost what they put into it; facilitated the large sums of $$ needed for the transportation routes being built

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*Lowell system

factories had trouble finding ppl (aka men) to work in them so textile mills recruited young farm women to work and housed them in company dorms; also child labor too?

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Unions (Commonwealth v. Hunt)

trade ___ formed in major cities due to long hours, low pay, and poor working conditions; faced obstacles: 1) immigrant replacement workers, 2) state laws outlawing unions, 3) frequent economic depressions w/ high unemployment; Supreme court ruled that peaceful ___ had the right to negotiate labor contracts with employers

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Market revolution

the transformation of the US economy due to the widespread mechanization of the industry; factories in, farmers and artisans (somewhat) out; factories also brought unsafe working conditions and low pay but made goods extremely cheap

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Spoils system

the process of dispensing government jobs in return for party loyalty (jackson for the democrats)

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*Democrats

belief in the equality for white males; “equality” of opportunity would allow a young man to rise as far as his natural talent and industry would take him; “a self-made man”; LOVE JACKIE (andrew)

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*Whigs

continued fed ideas; government power should be exercised to improve America culturally and economically; ANTI-JACKSON

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Indian removal act

Jackson did not believe in equality for AI and sympathized for land-hungry (u guessed it) men → forced the resettlement of many thousands of Natives; bureau of indian affairs “assisted” with the resettlement

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Cherokee Nation v. Georgia

the attempt of the Cherokee to challenge the state of Georgia’s laws that their tribe HAD to move to the west; Supreme court ruled that they were not a foreign nation with the right to sue in a fed court

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Worcester v. Georgia

high court ruled that the laws of Georgia did not apply within Cherokee territory; clash between state laws and fed courts and Jackson (OFC) sided with the states and #kickedthemoutofGeorgia

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*Aaron Burr

a democratic-republican; opposed Hamilton’s federalist ideas; tied w jeffy for the election of 1800 → Hamilton persuaded ppls to vote for Jeffy instead → duel with Hamilton #ripbro → tried for treason and acquitted

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John Marshall

appointed chief justice of the Supreme Court (SC) in the final months of John Adams’ pres yrs; strong influence on SC; gave Jeffy lots of grief

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James Monroe

5th pres of the US; fought in the Rev War; Jefferson’s minister to GB and Madison’s secretary of state; represented the growing nationalism of the American ppl; under his presidency we acquired Flo-rida, agreed on the Missouri comp, and adopted his doctrine

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Henry Clay

senator from Kentucky and speaker of the House; created American system to advance economic growth; proposed resolutions for the MISSOURI COMP; one of the leaders of the War Hawks

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War Hawks

a group of new, young Democratic-Republicans; eager for war with Britain and quickly gaining influence; the only way to defend American honor, gain Canada, and destroy AI resistance was WAR!

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*John C. Calhoun

outspoken war hawk and Democratic-republican who valued states’ rights; resigned from Jackson’s cabinet as vice president

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Tecumseh

an AI warrior that attempted to united all of the tribes east of the MS river; efforts failed after the destruction of the Shawnee Headquarters

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*William Henry Harrison

gov of IN; led armies against indians; BATTLE OF TIPPECANOE; destroyed Shawnee headquarters; ninth pres

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*Napoleon Bonaparte

french military and political leader; very ambitious and wanted to dominate Europe and the US; led france into Napoleonic Wars

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Barbary pirates

first major challenge to Jefferson’s foreign policy; came from the North african coast; Washington and Adams paid tribute to their governments in exchange for safe passage; they raised prices for jeffy and he refused and sent military there to deal with them → gained their respect and offered a measure of protection for US ships in mediterranean waters

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*Oliver Hazard Perry

led the US militia in victory during the most important naval battle (Lake Erie) in the war of 1812; “we have met the enemy and they are ours”

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Andrew Jackson

7th pres of the US; strong leader and symbol for the emerging working class and middle class; hero in the Battle of New Orleans; no college education and violent temper; “self-made man” and “the extraordinary ordinary man”; very white men central and say bye to everyone else kinda vibes

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Samuel Slater

TEXTILE SYSTEM; “father of the American Industrial Revolution”

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*Roger Taney

chief justice of the supreme court who wrote an opinion in the 1857 Dred Scott case that declared the Missouri compromise unconstitutional

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*Martin Van Buren

8th pres of the US; Loyal to Jackson when everyone in his cabinet was leaving; the vice pres of Jackson during his second term

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