Studied by 186 people

5.0(1)

get a hint

hint

1

Fluids

Substances which can flow.

New cards

2

Density

Mass per unit volume of a substance

New cards

3

S.I. Units of Density

kg/m³

New cards

4

CGS unit of density

g/cc

New cards

5

Pressure

Magnitude of normal force acting per unit area

New cards

6

S.I. Units of Pressure

Pascal

New cards

7

Hydrostatic pressure

Pressure due to liquid

New cards

8

Factors that hydrostatic pressure depends on

Density of liquid and depth below the surface

New cards

9

What principle does buoyancy use?

Archimedes Principle

New cards

10

Buoyancy

If a body is fully or partially immersed in a fluid, it experiences an upward force due to the fluid called buoyant force.

New cards

11

An object with a mass of 150 kg and a volume of 0.75 m3 is floating in ethyl alcohol, whose density is 800 kg/m3. What fraction of the object’s volume is above the surface of the fluid?

New cards

12

Volume Flow Rate

Volume of fluid that passes through a particular point per unit of time.

New cards

13

Formula for volume flow rate

F = Av

A = cross-sectional area

v=flow speed

New cards

14

Continuity equation

The density of fluid is constant. Thus, A1V1 = A2V2.

New cards

15

A circular pipe of non-uniform diameter carries water. At one point in the pipe, the radius is 2 cm and the flow speed is 6m/s. What is the flow speed at a point where the pipe constricts to a radius of 1 cm?

New cards

16

Bernoulli’s effect

At comparable heights, the pressure is lower where the flow speed is greater.

New cards

17

Bernoulli’s Equation

New cards

18

Buoyancy diagram for object floating in liquid.

New cards

19

Practical units for pressure

atm, bar, torr

New cards

20

A vertical column made of cement has a base area of 0.5 m2. If its height is 2 m, and the density of cement is 3000 kg/m3, how much pressure does this column exert on the ground?

New cards

21

SI unit for Volume Flow Rate

m³/s

New cards

22

A circular pipe of non-uniform diameter carries water. At one point in the pipe, the radius is 2 cm and the flow speed is 6m/s. What is the volume flow rate?

New cards

23

What does Bernoulli’s Equation assume for the conservation of energy in fluids?

The fluid is incompressible.

The fluid’s viscosity is negligible.

The fluid is streamlined.

New cards

24

Bernoulli’s Equation

New cards

25

Explain how airflow affects the airplane wing in the image and helps it fly.

The air on the bottom has greater pressure and pushes up on the wing, giving the airplane lift force.

New cards

26

Heat

Thermal energy is transmitted from one body to another.

Energy in transit.

New cards

27

Temperature

It is a measure of an object’s internal energy.

New cards

28

Kinetic Theory of Gases

It relates to the macroscopic properties of gases such as pressure, temperature, etc.

Every gas consists of small particles known as molecules.

The gas molecules are identical but different from those of another gas.

The volume of molecules is negligible compared to the volume of gas.

The density of a gas is constant at all points.

Consequently, pressure is exerted by gas molecules on the walls of the container.

No attractive or repulsive force exists between the gas molecules.

New cards

29

The Ideal Gas Law

*Pv = nRT*

P = pressure

V = volume

n = no. of moles

R = Gas constant

T = temperature

New cards

30

Average Kinetic Energy

The pressure exerted by N molecules of gas in a container is related to the average kinetic energy.

*K avg = 3/2 kb T*

K avg = average kinetic energy

kb = Boltzmann’s constant

T = temperature

New cards

31

Room mean square velocity

It gives us a type of average speed that is easy to calculate from the temperature of the gas.

*vrms = √3 kb T/ m*

vrms = root mean square velocity

kb = Boltzmann’s constant

T = temperature

m = mass

New cards

32

The Maxell-Boltzmann Distribution

The Kinetic theory of gases applies to a large number of particles.

Some molecules will be moving faster than average and some much slower.

New cards

33

Heat Engines

It is a device which uses heat to produce useful work.

New cards

34

Convection

The movement caused within a fluid by the tendency of hotter and therefore less dense material to rise, and colder, denser material to sink under the influence of gravity, which consequently results in transfer of heat.

New cards

35

Radiation

Emission or transmission of energy in the form of waves or particles through space or through a material medium.

New cards

36

Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics

If objects 1 and 2 are in thermal equilibrium with Object 3, then Objects 1 and 2 are in thermal equilibrium with each other.

New cards

37

First Law of Thermodynamics

It is a special case of the law of conservation of energy that describes processes in which only internal energy changes and the only energy transfers are by heat and work.

*∆ U = Q + W*

Q = heat added

W = work done by the system

∆ U = change in internal energy

New cards

38

Work done

It is used to calculate work done

New cards

39

Isothermal Process

Temperature remains constant

New cards

40

Adiabatic Process

No transfer of heat

New cards

41

Isobaric Process

Pressure remains constant

New cards

42

Isochoric Process

Volume remains constant

New cards

43

Second Law of Thermodynamics

It describes how systems evolve over time.

New cards

44

Entropy

It is associated with a state of randomness, disorder, or uncertainty

New cards

45

Conduction

Heat conducts from one point to another only if there is a temperature difference between the two objects.

New cards

46

Electric Charge

In an isolated system, the charge is always conserved.

Protons and electrons have a quality called electric charge.

The charge is invariant in nature.

The charge is quantized.

*(Q = n e)*e = 1.6 * 10^-19 C

n = no. of electrons

Q = charge

New cards

47

Ionization

New cards

48

Coulomb’s Law

The electric force between two particles with charges q1 and q2 separated by distance r has a magnitude by the equation:

*F = Kq1q2/r^2*

F = force

K = coulomb’s constant

q1 and q2 = charges

r = distance between the charges

New cards

49

Addition of forces

Consider three point charges: q1, q2, and q3. The total electric force acting on, say, is simply the sum of F1-on-2, the electric force on q2 due to q1, and F3-on-2, the electric force on q2 due to q3:

New cards

50

Electric Field

The space is surrounded by a charge in which another charged particle experiences the force.

*E = F on q/ q*

It describes the electric field vector from the force vector on a positive charge.

New cards

51

Electric field due to a point charge

The electric field surrounding the point charge is:

*E = 1/4πε0 * Q/r^2*

E = electric field

Q = charger = distance between charges

ε0 = permittivity of free space

New cards

52

Three types of electric field

Radial field

It is generated by a collection of point charges.

An infinite sheet of charge.

New cards

53

electric field lines

The electric fields follow the same addition properties as the electric force.

The electric field lines never cross.

New cards

54

The uniform electric field

A lot of problems deal with the uniform electric field. The field may be taken as uniform at least in the middle. The uniform field just signifies the constant force.

New cards

55

Conductors

Materials which allow the flow of excess charge without resisting it.

New cards

56

Insulators

Materials that resist the flow of electrons.

New cards

57

Charging by friction

It involves rubbing the insulator against another material, thereby stripping electrons from one to another material.

New cards

58

Charging through conduction

When we connect two conductors charge flows from one to another until the potential of both the conductors becomes the same.

New cards

59

Charging through induction

The process of charging by induction may be used to redistribute charges among a pair of neutrally charged spheres.

New cards

60

If the sphere is an insulator made up of glass

There aren’t any free electrons. The atoms make up the sphere will become polarised.

New cards

61

charge of proton

positive

New cards

62

charge of electron

negative

New cards

63

law of charges

the directions of the electric forces on the charges of mutual interaction; like charges repel, opposite charges attract.

New cards

64

net charge

an object with an excess of positive or negative charges

New cards

65

electrostatic charging

accomplished by Friction, Contact, Induction, or Polarization

New cards

66

Charging by Polarization

Charging by Polarization

New cards

67

How do objects become charged?

By gaining/losing electrons

New cards

68

Electric charge is always _______.

Conserved

New cards

69

What is the numerical value of one charge?

1 e = 1.6 x 10^-19 Coulombs

New cards

70

The SI unit of a charge is in ______.

coulombs

New cards

71

What happens when an insulator is charged?

Only the small spot which was directly contacted with a charge remains charged.

New cards

72

What is the name of materials that contain properties somewhere between conductors and insulators?

semiconductors

New cards

73

A dipole consists of:

two equal and opposite charged

New cards

74

In what direction to field lines go?

From positive to negative charges ALWAYS

New cards

75

What indicated field strength?

The density of field lines

New cards

76

What do few field lines between charges indicate?

a weak field

New cards

77

Which one of the following rules, laws, or principles describes how the net electric charge of an isolated system undergoing any process remains constant?

law of conservation of electric charge

New cards

78

Electrical Potential Energy

*We *is the work done by the electric force, then the change in the charge’s electrical potential energy is defined by:

Ue = electrical potential energy

We = work done by electric force

New cards

79

Electrical Potential Energy from a point charge

Electrical potential energy required to move along the field lines surrounding a point charge is given by:

q1 and q2 = charges

e0 = permeability of free space

Ue = electrical potential energy

r = distance

New cards

80

Electric Potential

Electric potential is the electric potential energy per unit of charge at a point in an electric field, measured in volts (V). It's the work done per unit charge in bringing a test charge from infinity to that point.

*V = U/q*

New cards

81

Electric Potential Energy from a point charge

Consider the electric field created by a point source charge Q. If a charge moves from a distance rA to a distance rB from Q, then the change in the potential energy is:

Ub and Ua = electrical potential energies for a and b

ra and rb = distances for a and b

e0 = permeability of free space

New cards

82

Equipotential Surface

An equipotential surface is a surface in a region of space where every point on the surface is at the same potential. In other words, no work is required to move a charge along an equipotential surface. Equipotential surfaces are perpendicular to electric field lines and can be used to visualize the electric field in a given region.

New cards

83

Addition of electric potential

*V = kQ/r*

V = electric potential energy

q = point charger = distance between any point around the charge to the point charge

k = Coulomb constant; k = 9.0 × 109 N

New cards

84

Equipotential Curve

Equipotential curves are curves of constant elevation. If you walk along any of the contour lines and you neither ascend nor descend, then the curve is known as the equipotential curve.

New cards

85

Equipotential Map

A drawing of several equipotential curves at various values of the potential for a charge distribution is called an equipotential map.

New cards

86

Capacitor

Two conductors, separated by some distance carry equal but opposite charges +Q and -Q. The pair comprises a system called a capacitor.

New cards

87

Parallel-Plate Capacitor

The capacitor is in the form of parallel metal plates or sheets.

New cards

88

Capacitance

The capacitance measures the capacity for holding charge.

*C = κε₀A/d (k = dielectric constant)*

New cards

89

Fringing fields

Fringing fields extend beyond conductor or magnetic material edges. They weaken as the distance from the edge increases. They're important in device design but can cause interference and affect performance.

New cards

90

energy stored in capacitor

The energy stored in a capacitor can be calculated using the formula

** Uc = ½QV = ½CV²** where

U is the energy stored in joules, C is the capacitance of the capacitor in farads and V is the voltage across the capacitor in volts.

New cards

91

Dielectric

To keep the plates of the capacitor apart they are filled with dielectric which increases the capacitance of the capacitor.

New cards

92

The amount of work done by a uniform electric field

*W = q E d*

W = work done

q = charge

E = electric field

d = distance

New cards

93

A dielectric always _______ the capacitance of a capacitor

increases

New cards

94

the __________ of the capacitance of a collection of capacitors in series is found by adding the reciprocals of the individual capacitances

reciprocal

New cards

95

Collection of capacitors is said to be in ______ if they all share the same charge magnitude

series

New cards

96

The equivalent capacitance of a collection of capacitors in parallel is found by _______ the individual capacitances

adding

New cards

97

The equivalent capacitance of a collection of capacitors in parallel is found by _______ the individual capacitances

parallel

New cards

98

1 C/V = ?

1 Farad

New cards

99

Ratio of charge to potential difference (C=Q/∆V)

capacitance

New cards

100

Magnitude of the potential difference between two plates of a distance d

*∆V = -Ed*

New cards