Reconstruction Test Study Guide

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10 percent plan (Lincoln) vs. Wade-Davis Bill (Radicals)

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10 percent plan (Lincoln) vs. Wade-Davis Bill (Radicals)

  • Wade Davis bill required a majority of a state’s residents to take an oath of loyalty to the union

  • Lincoln only required 10% of voters to take said oath of allegiance

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Andrew Johnson impeachment

  • failed by 1 vote

  • attempted impeachment because he dismissed a radical in his administration

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Radical Reconstruction

under radical rule, former confederates were denied the right to vote

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Cotton and Tobacco

most widely raised cash crops

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"Solid South"

  • heavy handed radical rule led to the creation of a solid democrat voting block in the south

  • refers to the near-unanimous support for the democratic party in the south

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Grant Administration Corruption

Ulysses G. Grant’s administration is considered by many historians to have been one of the most corrupt in history

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William Tweed

corrupt NYC official who defrauded the city

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Thomas Nast

political cartoonist who advocated reforms - made fun of William “Boss” Tweed

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Horace Greeley

newspaper editor who ran for president in 1872

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Samuel Tilden

reform minded lawyer who sought to end corruption in NYC

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Rutherford B. Hayes

won the most disputed presidential election in American history up to that time

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Hiram Revels

first black person to serve in the U.S. congress

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Radical Republicans

a republican minority who wanted to deal harshly with the south

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Impeachment

indictment of a political official

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Carpetbagger

a northern radical who moved to the south

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Scalawag

southern unionists (radicals)

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Disenfranchisement

when someone is denied the right to vote or has their vote taken away

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sharecropping

  • system that was set up to allow freed slaves to farm the land without paying them directly

  • south was so economically devastated that they were unable to pay workers

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Redeemer

  • southerner who wanted to overthrow or oust republican rule

  • white majority rule

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"Grantism"

term used to describe political corruption

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Liberal Republicans

opposed radical republicans in the 1872 location

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Greenbacks

paper money not backed by precious metals (silver and/or gold)

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Thirteenth Amendment

abolished slavery everywhere in the U.S.

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Fourteenth Amendment

guaranteed citizenship rights

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Fifteenth Amendment

gave all men the right to vote regardless of race, color, or previous condition of servitude

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Military Reconstruction Act

divided the south into 5 military districts - congress selected military governors for each district

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Black Codes

attempted to regulate the conduct or behavior of former slaves

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Reconstruction

  • governments attempt to rebuild the south

  • identified by most people as the radical republican version of reconstruction

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Tenure of Office Act

designed to protect cabinet members from being fired by the president

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Panic of 1873

most severe depression in the first 100 years of American history

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Freedmen's Bureau

designed to help former slaves after the war

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Ku Klux Klan (KKK)

opposed radical reconstruction and attempted to prevent blacks from voting

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Credit Mobilier Scandal

involved the criminal use of funds intended for railroad construction

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Compromise of 1877

  • political agreement which would allow federal troops to be removed from the south

  • in exchange, the democrats to allow Rutherford B. Hayes to be president

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Presidential Reconstruction (Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson) vs. Congressional Reconstruction (Radical Republicans in Congress)

Johnson supported Lincoln's view of reconstruction

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Public schools in the South

universally agreed upon benefit that came out of reconstruction

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Washington and Lee University

Robert E. Lee accepted the position of president of Washington and Lee university (at the time it was just Washington college)

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Fisk and Gould Scandal

had to do with manipulating the price of gold

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Tammany Hall Corruption

democrat leaders needed its help to get votes and win elections (vote buying corruption)

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"Waving the Bloody Shirt"

  • political tactic whereby republicans would blame democrats for the war

  • generations after the civil war, anyone in the republican party was a union veteran

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What was the effect of the Military Reconstruction Act on the South?

  • Divided the 10 former states of the confederacy into 5 military districts

  • Each military governor was appointed by congress and their directive (orders) were to keep the peace through military courts or force if necessary

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What good did Reconstruction accomplish? Why was it still resented by the South?

Good:

  • Universal male suffrage

  • Public schools

  • Rebuilding of roads

  • Building of railroads/transportation

  • Internal improvements

Bad:

  • Didn’t like being occupied

  • Didn’t like being disenfranchised

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