APUSH Chapter 21

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Consumer Goods

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56 Terms

1

Consumer Goods

Products intended for purchase and use by individuals or households-clothing, food, automobiles, and radios.

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2

Electricity-washing machines, irons, vacuums, and toasters.

What technological advance contributed most prominently to the consumer-oriented economy?

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3

Henry Ford

Inventor and manufacturer, founded the Ford Motor Company in 1903 and pioneered mass production of automobiles.

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4

Model T

Lightweight automobile that Ford produced from 1908 to 1927 and sold at the lowest possible price on the theory that an affordable car would be more profitable.

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5

Chrysler, Ford, and GM

What were the 3 Big Automotive Manufacturers?

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6

A.P. Giannini

Italian American who changed banking by opening multiple branches and encouraging small accounts and personal loans. Created the Bank of America.

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7

He opened branches near people’s homes and workplaces.

How did A.P. Giannini bring the banking system to ordinary people?

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8

Operating Companies

A company that directly sells goofs or services, as opposed to a holding company that exists to own other companies.

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9

True

(T/F) During the 1920’s many people began to see the stock market as a way to get rich quick. Common stock prices 3x

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10

Speculation

What is a problem that happened with both the stock market and land in the 1920s?

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11

False. Throughout the 1920s, farmers consistently produced more than the domestic market could absorb, pushing prices down.

(T/F) During the 1920s, agriculture thrived.

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12

More Americans were living in urban areas than in rural ones.

For the first time in American History, what was shown on the 1920 census that in a large part can be attributed to automobiles?

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13

Los Angeles

What western city emerged as an automobile metropolis in the 1920s? Its population 10x between 1900 and 1920.

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14

Movies, radios, and spectator sports.

What new trends/inventions helped homogenize (make uniform throughout) American culture?

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15

Charles Lindbergh

American aviator who made the first solo transatlantic flight in 1927 and became an international hero.

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16

Sinclair Lewis

Novelist who satirized middle-class America in works such as Babbit (1922); first American to win the Nobel Prize for literature.

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17

Harlem Renaissance

Literary and artistic movement in the 1920s, centered in Harlem, in which black writers and artists celebrated African American life.

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18

Marcus Garvey

Jamaican black nationalist active in America in the 1920s who advocated a form of black separation.

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19

Eighteenth Amendment

A 1919 constitutional amendment forbidding the manufacture, sale, or transportation of alcoholic beverages.

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20

Al Capone

Italian-born American gangster who ruthlessly ruled the Chicago underworld until imprisoned in 1931.

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21

Racketeering

Crimes such as extortion, loansharking, and bribery. Sometimes behind the front of a seemingly legitimate business.

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22

Fundamentalism

Originally an early 20th century Protestant Christian religious movement that emphasized the literal truth of the Bible and opposed efforts to reconcile the Bible with scientific knowledge. Rejected anything they considered incompatible with the scriptures.

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23

National Origins Act

A 1924 congressional act establishing quotas for immigration to the U.S.; it limited immigration from southern and Eastern Europe and prohibited immigration from Asia.

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24

American Indian Defense Association

(AIDA) Organization founded in 1923 to defend the rights of American Indians; it sought an end to land allotment and a return to tribal government.

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25

Flappers

Women in their late teens and early twenties who were scandalously dressed.

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26

Jews, Catholics, immigrants, and African Americans

During the 1920 the KKK experienced a rebirth. What groups did it target?

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27

American Plan

Term used by some employers in the 1920 to describe their policy of refusing to negotiate with unions.

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28

Welfare Capitalism

Program adopted by some employers to provide employee benefits such as lunchrooms, paid vacations, bonuses, and profit sharing plans.

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29

True

(T/F) The 1920s marked the first period of prosperity in American history since the 1830s where American membership was on the decline.

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30

Communist Party of the United States

Party organized in 1919, devoted to replacing capitalism and private property with its version of socialism.

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31

Equal Rights Amendment

Proposed constitutional amendment, first advocated by the National Women’s Party in 1923, to give women equal rights.

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32

Warren Harding

President who had one of the most corrupt administrations in American history. He gave many jobs to his cronies and political speakers.

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33

Farm Bloc

Bipartisan group of senators and representatives formed in 1921 to promote legislation to assist farmers.

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34

21st Amendment

(1933) Overturns the 18th Amendment

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35

Volstead Act (1920)

Enforced the 18th Amendment

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36

True

(T/F) Crime and alcoholism actually increased during Prohibition.

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37

A trial that occurred on July 10-25, 1925 in Dayton, TN. Teacher teaches the theory of evolution after TN bans it.

What was the Scopes Trial?

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38

Clarence Darrow

Celebrated defense attorney employed by American Civil Liberties Union in the Scopes Trial.

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39

Calvin Coolidge

Who succeed Harding as president after he died in office?

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40

Coolidge-Republican

John W. Davis-Democrats

Robert La Follete-Progressives

Who were the three nominees for the very divided presidential election of 1924?

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41

Calvin Coolidge

Who won the Presidential election of 1924?

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42

Limited Government

As President, Calvin Coolidge was committed to ________ and reduced the significance of the presidency.

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43

McNary-Haugen Bill

Form relief bill providing for government purchases of crop surpluses; Coolidge vetoed it.

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44

Railway Labor Act of 1926

Federal Law guaranteeing collective bargaining for railroad employees.

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45

Herbert Hoover

First president born west of the MS. Elected in 1928.

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46

Herbert Hoover- Republican

Al Smith- Democrat

Who ran in the presidential election of 1928?

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47
  1. Rejection of Woodrow Wilson’s internationalism

  2. A continuing quest by American business for more markets and investments.

What two realities shaped American foreign policy in the 1920s: ___________ and ___________.

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48

Independent Internationalism

Harding and Coolidge left most foreign-policy decisions to their Secretaries of State, Charles Evans Hughes and Frank Kellog. Both sought to expand American influence and business abroad through _________

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49
  1. Avoidance of multilateral commitments (isolationism)

  2. Expansion of economic opportunities overseas.

What are the two aspects of independent internationalism?

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50

(False) The U.S. withdrew its troops but kept some control over each nation’s finances and trained its military and police forces.

(T/F) During the 1920s, the United States put more troops in Latin America.

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51

Augusto Sandino

Nicaraguan guerilla leader who resisted Nicaraguan and American troops from 1925 to 1933 and was murdered in 1934.

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52

Fruit and Oil

What industries did the U.S. control sometimes forcibly in Latin America?

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53

Fordney-McCumber Tariff

Protective tariff passed by Congress in 1922 that raised tariff rates.

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54

Dawes Plan

Arrangement for collecting WWI reparations from Germany; it scheduled annual payments and stabilized Germany currency.

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55

Washington Naval Conference

International conference in 1921-1922; produced agreements to limit naval armaments and prevent conflict in East Asia and the Pacific.

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56

Kellog-Briand Act

A 1928 treaty signed by 15 nations, including Britain, France, Germany, the U.S. and Japan, that renounced war as a means of solving international disputes.

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