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all of a group's learned behaviors, actions, beliefs, and traditions

cultural traits

the visible and invisible elements of a culture

cultural complex

series of interrelated cultural traits

cultural hearth

a place of origin to a major culture


behaviors of a culture that are heavily discouraged

folk culture

the products and practices of homogenous and isolated small-scale groups living in rural locations

popular culture

when cultural traits spread over a large area and are adopted by various groups

global culture

when popular culture makes it worldwide

indigenous community

communities that live within geographically distinct traditional habitats or ancestral territories who identify themselves as being apart of a distinct group


the movement of people or cultures to towns and cities


the expansion of economic, political, and cultural processes to where they become global in scale and impact

material culture

physical objects and belongings of members of a group of people


the material manifestations of a culture


the elements of a culture that express values and beliefs

non-material culture

non-physical ideas that people have about their culture


the institutions and links between individuals and groups that unite a culture


the act of designing and constructing buildings

cultural landscape

visible reflection if the culture of built environment

traditional architecture

a style that reflects a local culture's history, beliefs, values, and community adaptations that typically utilize locally available resources

post modern architecture

a movement away from boxy, mostly concrete or brick structures toward high rise structures made from steel or glass and the use of bright colors, curves, and atriums are also common

land-use patterns

the use of land for various purposes or activities

linguistic characteristics

the features of a language


the difference between men and women


a strong belief in a supernatural power or powers that control human destiny

ethnic neighborhood

usually in the urban areas are occupied by migrants in a charter groups former space


a population that is scattered across a region which are separate from its place of origin


a monotheistic religion that is based on the life and teachings of Jesus


a monotheistic faith of the muslims that is based on mahammed and the prophet of allah


a religion represented by the many groups that profess various forms of the buddhist doctrine


a monotheistic religion founded in northern india by guru nanak combining elements of Hinduism and Islam


the monotheistic religion of most people in india, bangladesh, sri lanka, and nepal that is based around karma that works closely with a caste system


a monotheistic faith of jews who practice a religion based on the torah and the talmud

sequent occupancy

successive societies leave their cultural imprints on a place to contribute to the cumulative cultural landscape

cultural relativism

the concept that a person's or group's beliefs, values, norms, and practices should be understood from the perspective of the other group's culture


belief in the superiority of one's own ethnic group


membership in a group if people who share characteristics such as ancestry, language, customs, history, and common experiences

sense of place

state of mind derived through the infusion of a place with meaning and emotion by remembering important events that occurred in that place or by labeling a place with a certain character


used as an urban planning practice to motivate people to get involved with the spaces closest to them

centripetal force

those that unify a group of people or a region

centrifugal force

those that divide a group of people or a region

relocation diffusion

the spread of culture and or cultural traits by people who migrate and carry their cultural traits with them

expansion diffusion

the spread of culture and or cultural traits outward through exchange without migration

contagious diffusion

occurs when a cultural trait spreads continuously outward from its hearth through contact among people

hierarchical diffusion

the spread of diffusion outward from the most interconnected places or from centers of wealth and influence

reverse hierarchical diffusion

when a cultural trait diffuses from a group of lower status to a group of higher status

stimulus diffusion

when an underlying idea from a cultural hearth is adopted by another culture but the adopting group modifies or rejects one trait


he process by which elements of different cultures are blended together to create a new culture

lingua franca

a common language used by speakers of different languages


a particular type of imperialism in which people move and settle on the land of another country