Organic Chemistry Vocabulary Chapter (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 ,9)

studied byStudied by 30 People
5.0(1)
get a hint
hint

Organic chemistry

1/230

Studying Progress

New cards
230
Still learning
0
Almost done
0
Mastered
0
230 Terms
New cards

Organic chemistry

the study of carbon compounds

New cards
New cards

Organic compounds

are made from mostly C and H atoms may contain other nonmetals (O, S, N, P, or halogens)

New cards
New cards

Carbon atoms are the basis for life because they:

New cards
New cards

atom

a dense nucleus that holds protons and neutrons electrons orbit in a large, empty space around the nucleus

New cards
New cards

Atomic number

the number of protons present in EVERY atom of that element

New cards
New cards

Quantum Mechanics

The behavior of an electron is described by a wave equation

New cards
New cards

orbital

The solution to the wave equation is called a wave function

New cards
New cards

Principal Quantum Numbers

Assigned energy levels for electrons (aka shells). Lower energy levels are closer to the nucleus. Energy levels increase in energy as the value of n increases

New cards
New cards

Subtypes of Orbitals

s, p, d, f

New cards
New cards

s orbitals

spherical, nucleus at center.

New cards
New cards

p orbitals

There are three different p orbitals, depending on their orientation within the atom. dumbbell-shaped, with the nucleus at middle.

New cards
New cards

d Orbitals

Five d different d orbitals 4 orbitals are Four-leaf clover shaped: lobe orientations vary. 1 orbital has two lobes with a donut shaped region called a torus in the x-y plane.

New cards
New cards

Pauli Exclusion Principle

if two electrons share the same orbital, they must have opposite spins

New cards
New cards

Aufbau Principle:

electrons will always go into the lowest-energy orbitals available (maximum of 2 e- per orbital).

New cards
New cards

Hund’s Rule

Orbitals of the same type have the same energy (e.g., all 2p are equal) The lowest-energy configuration maximizes the number of unpaired electrons.

New cards
New cards

Valence electrons

electrons are in the outer most energy shell (furthest from the nucleus) most unstable involved in chemical bonding usually electrons is the s & p orbitals of the highest energy shell (n)

New cards
New cards

Group Number

gives the number of valence electrons for the representative elements Exception: helium

New cards
New cards

Electron-dot symbol or Lewis symbols

represent the valence electrons as dots placed on the top, bottom, and sides of a chemical symbol

New cards
New cards

Lewis Theory of Chemical Bonding

Stable Configurations: 8 electrons in the outermost valence shell (most Noble Gases). The octet rule generally applies to all main-group elements except: Hydrogen (wants a duet, 2e-, in outermost shell) Lithium Beryllium Boron

New cards
New cards

Chemical bonds

form when atoms lose, gain, or share valence electrons to fulfill the octet rule making bonds releases energy, breaking bonds absorbs energy

New cards
New cards

Ionic bond

atoms gain/lose valence electrons (ionic compounds, salt crystals)

New cards
New cards

Covalent bond

nonmetal atoms share electrons to form molecules

New cards
New cards

Lone pair

valence electrons not used in bonding

New cards
New cards

sigma (σ) bond

head-on overlap between two orbitals and electrons are located between the nuclei of the bonding atoms

New cards
New cards

Bond length

ideal distance between nuclei that leads to maximum stability

New cards
New cards

Hybridization

combination of orbitals to form new ones

New cards
New cards

Tetrahedral geometry

C-H bond strength = 439 kJ/mole Bond Angle 109.5* Bond Length 109 pm

New cards
New cards

Double bonds

one sigma and one pi bond, 4 electrons shared

New cards
New cards

Triple bonds

one sigma and two pi bonds, 6 electrons shared

New cards
New cards

Pi bond

p orbitals have a sideways overlap above and below the internuclear axis A covalent bond in which electron density is greatest around—not along—the bonding axis

New cards
New cards

Double C-C Bonds

Intermediate bond length, medium bond strength Trigonal planar geometry

New cards
New cards

Triple Carbon bond

Shortest bond length, strongest bond Linear geometry

New cards
New cards

molecular formula

which give the total number of element

New cards
New cards

Bond-Line Formula

Structural Formulas shows each bond

New cards
New cards

Condensed Formula

Structural Formulas shows each C atom and its attached H atoms as a group

New cards
New cards

Skeletal formulas

show the carbon skeleton bonds are represented by straight lines C atoms are represented at each corner or vertex H atoms attached to C are omitted, but other heteroatoms are shown

New cards
New cards

Electronegativity

attraction for shared electrons in a bond

New cards
New cards

Pauling Electronegativity Scale

Higher the number = more Electronegative

New cards
New cards

Ionic bond

complete electron transfer between metal and nonmetal ions large eN difference (greater than 2.0)

New cards
New cards

Nonpolar covalent bond

equal or almost equal sharing of electrons with small eN difference (less then 0.5)

New cards
New cards

Polar covalent bond

unequal sharing of electrons between nonmetals with moderate eN difference (0.5-2)

New cards
New cards

Inductive effect

the shifting of e- in a sigma bond in response to the eN of nearby atoms

New cards
New cards

dipole moment

Happens in Polar Molecules vector summation of individual bond polarities and lone-pair contributions can result in uneven charge distribution throughout the molecule

New cards
New cards

High Symmetry Carbon Molecules

no lone pairs on central atom identical atoms bonded to central molecule possible: nonpolar molecules that have polar

New cards
New cards

Symmetrical molecules

individual bond dipoles pointing equally in opposite directions. local dipoles cancel each other out. nonpolar molecules

New cards
New cards

Noncovalent interactions

(intermolecular forces) Electrostatic interactions BETWEEN molecules due to unevenly distributed electrons​ DIFFERENT from of intramolecular forces which are WITHIN a molecule​ relatively weak compared to covalent bonds​

New cards
New cards

Dipole-dipole interactions

occur between polar covalent molecules The partial negative end is attracted to the partial positive end

New cards
New cards

Hydrogen bonding

is the strongest dipole-dipole interaction Large differences in electronegativity between H and O, N

New cards
New cards

Hydrogen bond

a weak electrostatic attraction between an electronegative atom (such as oxygen or nitrogen) and a hydrogen atom covalently linked to a second electronegative atom

New cards
New cards

Dispersion forces

are the weakest intermolecular force occur in both polar and nonpolar molecules Attractive force caused by temporary dipoles that develop when molecules bump into each other

New cards
New cards

Formal charges

electron bookkeeping keeps track of electrons on a molecule do not imply the presence of actual charges

New cards
New cards

Formal Charge Equation

Formal Charge = Number of Valence Electrons - Number of Bonding Electrons - Number of Nonbonding Electrons (aka lone pairs)

New cards
New cards

Resonance forms

structures that differ by the placement of their pi or nonbonding electrons not different chemical species, but different depictions of one chemical species

New cards
New cards

Resonance hybrid

the actual structure of a molecule with resonance forms. composite – single unchanging structure that averages the structures of all resonance forms

New cards
New cards

Resonance

explains how some electrons are distributed over more than two atoms (delocalized)

New cards
New cards

Conjugated double bonds

repeating pattern of a double bond followed by a single bond

New cards
New cards

Alkanes

hydrocarbons that contain only C—C and C—H bonds continuous chain of C atoms have names that end in ane

New cards
New cards

Alkyl halides

contain an alkyl group attached to a group 7A element (halogens

New cards
New cards

Aromatic compound

contains a ring of 6 C atoms, each bonded to 1 H atom with 3 alternating double bonds

New cards
New cards

Alcohols contain

contain – OH (hydroxyl) groups can form hydrogen bonds

New cards
New cards

Phenols

alcohols that contain a hydroxyl group directly attached to a benzene ring

New cards
New cards

Thiols

contain an —SH group

New cards
New cards

Alkenes

hydrocarbons that contain double bonds

New cards
New cards

Alkynes

hydrocarbons that contain triple bonds

New cards
New cards

Sulfides

contain a C–S–C group

New cards
New cards

Ether

(C-O-C) contain an —O— between two C groups that are alkyl or aromatic

New cards
New cards

Nitriles

contain a carbon atom triple bonded to a nitrogen

New cards
New cards

carbonyl group

consists of a C=O polar double bond

New cards
New cards

aldehyde

carbonyl group is attached to one C group and one H atom

New cards
New cards

ketone

carbonyl group is attached to two C groups

New cards
New cards

Carboxylic acids

contain a hydroxyl group —OH attached to the C in a carbonyl group

New cards
New cards

Esters

contain an O bonded to a carbonyl and an alkyl group

New cards
New cards

Amines

contain N attached to one or more alkyl or aromatic groups

New cards
New cards

Amides

contain a carbonyl directly attached to a N group

New cards
New cards

Acid chlorides

contain a carbonyl attached to a chlorine

New cards
New cards

Anhydrides

contain an O sandwiched between two carbonyls

New cards
New cards

Bronsted Acid

proton (H+) donor

New cards
New cards

Bronsted Base

proton (H+) acceptor must have a lone pair of electrons to bond to the proton.

New cards
New cards

Conjugate acid–base pairs

related by the loss and gain of H+

New cards
New cards

conjugate base

forms after the acid loses a proton

New cards
New cards

conjugate acid

forms after the base has gained a proton

New cards
New cards

Inorganic Bronsted-Lowry Acids

eN halogen/oxygen attached to a H+

New cards
New cards

Organic Bronsted-Lowry Acids

carboxylic acid functional group alcohol functional groups amine functional group

New cards
New cards

Strong Bronsted Acids

greater ability to donate their acidic proton completely ionize in water have a weak conjugate base

New cards