Ant Exam #2 (Second Half of the Study Guide)

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Affines

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Affines

Definitions of affine. adjective. (anthropology) related by marriage. synonyms: affinal related. connected by kinship, common origin, or marriage.

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Collateral relatives

A collateral relative is any blood relative who is not your direct ancestor. So your ancestors are your parents, grandparents, great-grandparents, etc., and your collateral relatives are cousins, nieces, nephews, aunts, uncles, siblings, etc.

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Dowry

Dowry generally is practiced in cultures where women's roles are less valued than men's (Not widely practiced.) This practice requires the transfer of goods from the bride's family to the groom to compensate for acceptance of the responsibility of her support. The unilateral gift to male kin for taking on economic burden since high-class women are not supposed to work.

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Dowry evil

Dowry is a social evil in society that has caused unimaginable tortures and crimes towards women and polluted the marital system. Dowry is payment made in cash or kind to a bride's in-laws at the time of her marriage.

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Bride Service

Bride service has traditionally been portrayed in anthropological literature as the service rendered by the bridegroom to a bride's family as a bride price or part of one (see dowry). Bride service and bride wealth models frame anthropological discussions of kinship in many regions of the world.

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Bride Wealth

Bridewealth also called bride price or marriage payment, is payment made by a groom or his kin to the kin of the bride in order to ratify a marriage. In such cultures, marriage is not reckoned to have ended until the return of bridewealth has been acknowledged, signifying divorce.

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Preferential marriage patterns

Mating with a relative with whom marriage is enjoined under tribal rules — compare levirate, sororate

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Economic Systems

Economic systems are the means by which a society produces, distributes, and consumes resources and are intimately integrated with the other elements of the culture.

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Economic Anthropology

Economic anthropology studies how human societies provide the material goods and services that make life possible. In the course of material provisioning and during the realization of final consumption, people relate to each other in ways that convey power and meaning.

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Reciprocity – 3 types – with examples

  1. Generalized Reciprocity

  2. Balanced Reciprocity

  3. Negative Reciprocity

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Generalized Reciprocity

Generalized reciprocity refers to a type of exchange of goods and/or services where the giver and the recipient do not keep an exact ledger of value or stipulate the amount or duration of return. It is expected that the exchange will balance itself over time.

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Balanced Reciprocity

This is an equal exchange of goods and services among people of equal status. A return is usually expected within a certain length of time. If the receiving party fails to complete the exchange, social relations may be harmed. This is a less personal exchange often used in forming relationships

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Negative Reciprocity

Trying to receive more than what is given. Unlike the first two, people are more likely to be strangers.

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Redistribution Systems – 3 types

  1. A potlatch (ceremony) is a good example of redistribution.

  2. Anything of food

  3. Tools

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Reciprocity versus Redistributive Exchange

Redistribution differs from simple reciprocity, which is a dyadic back-and-forth exchange between two parties. Redistribution, in contrast, consists of pooling, a system of reciprocities. It is a within-group relationship, whereas reciprocity is a between relationship.

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Potlatch

A ceremonial feast of the American Indians of the northwest coast marked by the host's lavish distribution of gifts or sometimes destruction of property to demonstrate wealth and generosity with the expectation of eventual reciprocation. 2 Northwestern US: a social event or celebration.

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Leveling Mechanism

Customs and social actions that operate to reduce differences in wealth and bring standouts in line with community norms.

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Conspicuous Consumption

Spending money on luxury items to display economic/power

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Political Systems

Political anthropology is a field of study within anthropology encompassing analysis of political power, leadership, and human influence in all aspects of our social, cultural, symbolic, ritual, and policy dimensions.

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Coercion

The act of compelling by force of authority.

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Consensus

Agreement in the judgment or opinion reached by a group as a whole.

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