Cell Structures & Organelles

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Ribosomes

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Ribosomes

-Looks like a small hamburger bun

-Located free in the cytoplasm, mitochondria, chloroplasts, nucleolus, or attached to the ER

-Made up of RNA and protein

-Makes proteins according to instructions from the nucleus written in mRNA

ALL

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Golgi Apparatus/Body

-Stack of flattened sacs (sacs are not connected) -Looks like a pile of pita bread -Located in cytoplasm near the nucleus -Molecular warehouse and processing station for products made by the ER -Modifies, ships, and sorts cell products

Animal & Plant

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Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

-Sheets of bumpy membrane, has ribosomes on the surface of the membrane -Located in cytoplasm near the nucleus -Made of flattened sacs and tubules -Produces proteins such as insulin

Animal & Plant

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Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum

-Smooth tubes -Located in cytoplasm near nucleus -Made of flattened sacs and tubules -Synthesizes lipids or steroid sex hormones -Helps process potentially harmful substances -Stores calcium ions

Animal & Plant

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Small Vacuoles

-Water balloons or jellybeans -Cytoplasm -Collects and expels water

Animal

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Central Vacuole

-Stores water and a variety of chemicals -Collects and expels water -Can have a digestive function -Can contain poison -Can contain pigments that attract insects

Plant

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Cell Membrane

-Made of phospholipids and proteins -Regulates the transportation of material into and out of the cell

ALL

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Cytoplasm/Cytosol

-Thick, jelly-like fluid -Fills the inside of cells

ALL

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Enzymes in the Cell Membrane

-Generates energy

ALL

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Enzymes in the Cytoplasm

-Speeds up chemical reactions

ALL

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Cell Wall (3)

-Rigid, chemically complex -Protects the cell and helps maintain its shape -When in plants, contains polysaccharide cellulose (prokaryotic cells don’t)

Plant & Prokaryote

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Flagella

-Long, whip-like -Helps in cell mobility

Prokaryote & Some animals

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Cilia

-Short hair-like fibers -Helps in cell mobility

Prokaryote & Some animals

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Chromosome(s)

-Carries genes made of DNA -Located in the nucleus -Proteins help coil the DNA molecules -Allows DNA to be accurately copied during cell divisions -Carries DNA and transfers genetic information

ALL

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Vesicles

-Sacs made of membrane -Transfers material

Plant & Animal

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Nucleus

-Center of the cell -Contains the cell's genetic instructions encoded in DNA -Controls cell's activities by directing protein synthesis

Plant & Animal

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Nucleolus

-Located in the nucleus -Synthesizes ribosomal RNA

Plant & Animal

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Mitochondria

-Carries out cellular respiration -Sugar-->ATP -Enclosed by two membranes; phospholipid bilayer with a unique collection of embedded proteins

Plant & Animal

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Cytoskeleton

-Composed of different types of protein fibers that extend throughout the cell -Provides for support and movement -Made of microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments

Plant & Animal

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Centrioles

-Helps with cell division for microtubules -Located near nucleus

Animal

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Chloroplast

-Photosynthesis

Plant

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Lysosomes

-Membrane enclosed sac of digestive enzymes -It's enzymes and membrane are made by the rough ER and processed in the golgi apparatus -Fuses with food vacuoles to digest food -Recycles damaged organelles

Animal

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