Ch 1: Foundations of Environmental Systems and Societies

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Environmental managers

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66 Terms

1

Environmental managers

________: believe that we have an ethical duty to protect and nurture the earth.

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2

Biosphere

________: is a fragile skin on planet earth.

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3

Deep ecologists

________: put more value on nature than humanity.

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4

Biocentric

________: thinkers see all life as shaving value for its own sake, not just for humans.

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5

Material

________ and energy undergo transfers and transformations in flowing from one storage to the next.

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6

Transformations

________: when energy or matter flow and changes its state, a change in the chemical nature, a change in state or energy.

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7

Ecocentrics

________: puts ecology and nature as central to humanity (less materialistic)

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8

Cornucopians

________: people who see the world as having infinite resources to benefit humanity.

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9

Independent pressure groups

________: they use awareness campaigns to make a change.

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10

Anthropocentric

________: believes humans must sustainably manage the global system.

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11

Governments

________: make policy decisions which include environmental ounces, such as planning permission for land use, applying legislation to manage emissions controls over factories.

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12

EVS

Environmental value system (________): a worldview that shapes the way an individual or group perceive and evaluate environmental issues.

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13

environmental problems

Technocentric: believes that technological developments can provide solutions to ________.

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14

Transfers

________: when energy or matter flows and changes location but does not change its state.

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15

Biosphere

________= atmosphere + lithosphere + hydrosphere + ecosphere.

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16

Environmental value system (EVS)

a worldview that shapes the way an individual or group perceive and evaluate environmental issues

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17

Influential individuals

often use social media to raise awareness

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18

Independent pressure groups

they use awareness campaigns to make a change

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19

Corporate businesses

multinational corporations (MNC) and transnational corporations supply consumer demand and create environmental impact

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20

Governments

make policy decisions which include environmental ounces, such as planning permission for land use, applying legislation to manage emissions controls over factories

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21

Intergovernmental bodies

these groups hold summits about earth to bring governments, NGOs and corporations to consider environmental and world development issues

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22

Ecocentrics

puts ecology and nature as central to humanity (less materialistic)

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23

Anthropocentric

believes humans must sustainably manage the global system

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24

Technocentric

believes that technological developments can provide solutions to environmental problems

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25

Cornucopians

people who see the world as having infinite resources to benefit humanity

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26

Environmental managers

believe that we have an ethical duty to protect and nurture the earth

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27

Biocentric

thinkers see all life as shaving value for its own sake, not just for humans

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28

Deep ecologists

put more value on nature than humanity

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29

System

set of interrelated parts working together to make a complex whole, can be living or nonliving

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30

Biome

can be seen as an ecosystem

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31

Biosphere

is a fragile skin on planet earth

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32

Transfers

when energy or matter flows and changes location but does not change its state

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33

Transformations

when energy or matter flow and changes its state, a change in the chemical nature, a change in state or energy

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34

Principle of conservation of energy

states that energy in isolated systems can be transformed but not created or destroyed

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35

Second law of thermodynamics

states that energy is transformed through energy transfers

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36

Entropy

a measure of the amount of disorder in a system

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37

Efficiency

the useful energy, the work or output produced by a process divided by the amount of energy consumed being the input to the the process

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38

Equilibrium

the tendency of the system to return to an original state following disturbance. At an equilibrium; a state of balance exists among the components of a system

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39

Steady-state equilibrium:

a characteristic of an open system where there are continents inputs and outputs of energy and matter, the system remains in constant state

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40

Static equilibrium

no change occurs over time. Most non-living systems are in a state of static equilibrium

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41

Stable equilibrium

the system tends to return to the same equilibrium after a disturbance

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42

Unstable equilibrium

the system will return to a new equilibrium after a disturbance

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43

Feedback loop

when information that starts as a reaction in turn may input more information which may start another reaction

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44

Negative feedback loop

stabilises steady state equilibria, occur when the output of a process inhibits or reverses the operation of the same process in such a way to reduce change, counteracts deviation.

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45

Positive feedback loop

will amplify changes and bring the system towards a new tipping point where a new equilibrium is adopted

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46

Albedo

reflecting ability of a surface

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47

Resilience

the ability of a system to return to its initial state after a disturbance

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48

An ecological tipping point

is a reached when an ecosystem experiences a shift to a new state

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49

Lake eutrophication

nutrients added to a lake may not change much until enough nutrients are added to change its state

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50

Extinction of a keystone species

A keystone species within an ecosystem is fundamental to keeping the ecosystem stable and supported

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51

Coral reef death

if ocean acidity rises enough the reef coral dies and cannot regenerate

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Sustainability

the use of resources that allows full natural replacement of the resources used and full recovery of the ecosystems affected by their extraction

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53

Sustainable development

development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs

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54

Ecological overshoot

when a sustainable resource is exploited to its maximum

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55

Natural capital

natural resources that can produce a sustainable natural income of goods or services

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56

Environmental impact assessments (EIA)

is a report prepared before a development project changes the use of lans. It weighs up the advantages and disadvantages of the development

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57

Baseline study

an analysis of a current situation to identify the starting points for a project

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58

Ecological footprint (EF)

the area of land and water required to sustainability provide all resources at the rate which they are being consumed by a given population

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59

Pollution

the introduction/addition of a substance to the environment by human activity. This addition is considered harmful to the environment

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60

Primary pollutants

are active on emission (carbon monoxide) from the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels

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61

Secondary pollutants

are formed by primary pollutants undergoing physical or chemical changes

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62

Persistent organic pollutant (POPs)

a toxic environmental contaminant which requires special handling and disposal

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63

Biodegradable pollutants

do not persist in the environment and break down quickly. May be broken down by decomposer organisms or physical processes. Example: Light, heat

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64

Acute pollution

when large amounts of pollutants are released causing a lot of harm

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65

Chronic pollution

long term release of a pollutant but in small amounts

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66

Human activity

promoting alternative technologies through

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