Biomech unit 2: F & A Joint Structure and Function

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What bones make up the talocrural joint?

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What bones make up the talocrural joint?

trochlea of talus and distal tibia and fibula

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Distribution of force onto the talus

  • ~90-95% of body weight comes through tibia through talar head

  • 5-10% of body weight comes through fibula through lateral talus

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Articular cartilage of the talus

  • THICKKK (~3mm)

  • needs to be thick because of the large amount of compressive forces acting on it

  • will compress ~30-40% when load is put on it

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Mechanoreceptors of the talocural joint ligaments

mostly free nerve endings and ruffini receptors

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What ligaments are most vs least likely to be injured?

  • most: anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL)

  • least: deltoid ligaments

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What motion do certain ligaments limit?

-Calcaneofibular ligament: resists inversion -deltoid ligaments: resists extreme eversion

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Movements that stretch deltoid ligament (tibiotalar fibers)

-eversion -dorsiflexion w/ associated posterior talus w/in mortise (posterior fibers)

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Movements that stretch deltoid ligament (tibionavicular fibers)

-eversion -abduction -plantarflexion w/ associated anterior slide of talus w/in mortoise

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Movements that stretch deltoid ligament (tibiocalcaneal fibers)

-eversion

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Movements that stretch anterior talofibular ligament

-inversion -adduction -plantarflexion w/ associated anterior slide of talus w/in mortise

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Movements that stretch calcaneoufibular ligament

-inversion -dorsiflexion w/ associated posterior slide of talus w/in mortise

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Movements that stretch posterior talofibular ligament

-abduction -inversion -dorsiflexion w/ associated posterior slide of talus w/in mortise

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What is the orientation of the talocrural axis of rotation?

-slightly deviated from a mediolateral axis as it goes through the tips of the malleoli -the slight deviation allows for: -dorsiflexion+abduction+eversion=pronation -plantarflexion+adduction+inversion=supination

<p>-slightly deviated from a mediolateral axis as it goes through the tips of the malleoli -the slight deviation allows for: -dorsiflexion+abduction+eversion=pronation -plantarflexion+adduction+inversion=supination</p>
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Normal ROM of talocrural joint

  • neutral at 90 degrees -15-25 degrees of dorsiflexion -40-55 degrees of plantarflexion

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Roll and slide of talocrural joint dorsi vs plantar flexion

-dorsiflexion: talus rolls anteriorly, slides posteriorly -plantarflexion: talus rolls posteriorly, slides anteriorly

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Bones of the subtalar joint

talus and calcaneus

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Articulating surfaces of the subtalar joint

-posterior articular surface is larger and has it's own joint capsule -anterior & medial surfaces are smaller and share a joint capsule

<p>-posterior articular surface is larger and has it&apos;s own joint capsule -anterior &amp; medial surfaces are smaller and share a joint capsule</p>
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Ligaments that stabilize the subtalar joint

-calcaneofibular ligament stabilizes posteriorly and limits excessive inversion -tibiocalcaneal fibers of deltoid limit excessive eversion -talocrural ligament provides most support

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axis of rotation of the subtalar joint

-lateral posterior heel through subtalar joint and comes out the anterior, medial, and superior direction -~42 degrees off of horizontal plane and ~16 degrees off of sagittal plane

<p>-lateral posterior heel through subtalar joint and comes out the anterior, medial, and superior direction -~42 degrees off of horizontal plane and ~16 degrees off of sagittal plane</p>
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Movements of the subtalar joint

-inversion and eversion -mostly accessory movements

<p>-inversion and eversion -mostly accessory movements</p>
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Bones/joints of the transverse tarsal

talonavicular joint and calcaneocuboid

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What movements does the transverse tarsal joint allow for?

-cooperative movement of pronation/supination -allows us to adjust to various contours of surfaces and maintain balance -accessory movements to subtalar

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What type of joint and types of movements occur at the talonavicular joint?

-resembles ball and socket joint --> covex talus, concave navicular -navicular spins w/in the joint to allow for twisting, bending, etc

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What ligament stabilizes the talonavicular joint?

-spring ligament -spans from susenaculum talus to navicular

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If spring ligament is damaged, what condition will a pt experience?

pes planus

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Describe the movement/purpose of the calcaneocuboid joint

-Not a lot of movement at the joint -Provides stability to the lateral aspect of the foot -allows for translation of the propulsion/body weight onto the foot

<p>-Not a lot of movement at the joint -Provides stability to the lateral aspect of the foot -allows for translation of the propulsion/body weight onto the foot</p>
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what are the ligaments that hold the calcaneocuboid joint together dorsally?

calcaneocuboid ligament and bifurcated ligament

<p>calcaneocuboid ligament and bifurcated ligament</p>
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what are the ligaments that hold the calcaneocuboid joint together on the plantar side?

long and short plantar ligaments

<p>long and short plantar ligaments</p>
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Where is the primary movement of the transverse tarsal?

-at the talonavicular joint, spins -allows for pronation and supination

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What are the 2 axes of rotation of the transverse tarsal?

-longitudinal -oblique

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Orientation and action of longitudinal axis of transverse tarsal

-almost in line with the anterior-posterior axis of movement -allows for inversion and eversion

<p>-almost in line with the anterior-posterior axis of movement -allows for inversion and eversion</p>
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orientation and action of longitudinal axis of transverse tarsal

-runs vertically and medially -facilitates motion of abduction in dorsiflexion and adduction in plantar flexion

<p>-runs vertically and medially -facilitates motion of abduction in dorsiflexion and adduction in plantar flexion</p>
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what are the bones/joints that are a part of the distal intertarsal joints?

-cuneonevicular joint -cuboideonavicular -intercuneiform -cuneocuboid

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purpose/movement of the distal intertarsal joints?

-assist with pronation and supination by translating movement up to the forefoot -also provides significant stability of the transverse arch

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What is another name for the tarsometatarsal joint?

Lisfrac joint

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What tarsal and metatarsal bones articulate with each other?

-1st metatarsal & medial cuneiform -2nd metatarsal & intermediate cuneiform -3rd metatarsal & lateral cuneiform -4th and 5th metatarsal & cuboid

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What is a significant function of the 1st TMT joint?

-assists medial longitudinal arch -shares/distributes the load of the body weight out through the forefoot

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What amount of movement does each tarsometatarsal joint allow for?

  • 2nd and 3rd: least amount of movement, most stability -1st, 4th, and 5th: greatest mobility

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What happens to the 1st ray/TMT joint when you are NWB and plantarflex?

1st TMT slightly everts

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What happens to the 1st ray/TMT joint when you are NWB and dorsiflex?

1st TMT slightly inverts

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What does the slight inversion/eversion of the TMT joint allow for?

allows for high flexibility/adaptability of the medial aspect of the foot to adapt and conform to uneven surfaces

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What are the bones of the metatarsophalangeal joint?

-metatarsal (convex) -proximal end of phalanx (shallow concave)

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What are the ligaments of the metatarsophalangeal joint?

-collateral ligaments (run obliquely) -plantar plate (grooved, thick ligament on plantar surface) -transverse metatarsal ligaments

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What tendon passes through the groove of the plantar plate of the 1st MTP joint?

tendon of flexor hallucis brevis

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What is the purpose of the plantar plate?

helps for greater force distribution and propulsion

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What is the purpose of the deep transverse metatarsal ligaments?

help build congruency b/w plantar plates, they are very important for propulsion of the foot --> important for toe off phase of our gait

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How many DoF does the metatarsophalangeal joint have/what planes does it move in?

-2 DoF -extension and flexion --> sagittal plane and ML axis -abduction and adduction --> horizontal plane and vertical axis -Passive ROM: -toe extension: ~65 degrees -great toe extension: ~85 degrees - flex: 30-40 degrees

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what are the bones of the interphalangeal joint?

proximal and distal phalanges

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what are the ligaments of the interphalangeal joint?

-collateral ligaments (run obliquely) -plantar plate -joint capsules

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What plane and movements does the interphalangeal joint perform?

extension and flexion in the sagittal plane along the ML axis

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