Unit 1: Renaissance and Exploration

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The Renaissance

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34 Terms

1

The Renaissance

A period of cultural and intellectual rebirth that began in Italy in the 14th century and spread throughout Europe until the 17th century. It was characterized by a renewed interest in classical learning, humanism, and the arts.

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2

Humanism

A philosophical and intellectual movement that emphasized the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively. It was a reaction to the scholasticism of the Middle Ages, which focused on the study of theology and philosophy.

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3

Renaissance Art

Characterized by a renewed interest in classical forms, realism, and humanism. Artists such as Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, and Raphael created works that emphasized the beauty and complexity of the human form. Perspective, chiaroscuro, and sfumato were techniques used to create depth and realism in paintings.

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4

Italian Renaissance

A period of cultural and artistic growth in Italy from the 14th century to the 17th century, characterized by a renewed interest in classical art, literature, and philosophy, as well as a focus on humanism and individualism.

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5

Mona Lisa

A painting by Leonardo da Vinci that is considered one of the most famous and iconic works of art in the world.

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6

The Last Supper

A painting by Leonardo da Vinci that depicts the last meal of Jesus with his disciples.

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7

David

A sculpture by Michelangelo that depicts the biblical hero David, and is considered a masterpiece of Renaissance sculpture.

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8

Sistine Chapel

A chapel in the Vatican Palace that is famous for its ceiling painted by Michelangelo.

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9

The School of Athens

A painting by Raphael that depicts a gathering of famous philosophers and scientists from ancient Greece.

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10

Divine Comedy

A long narrative poem by Dante that describes his journey through Hell, Purgatory, and Paradise.

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11

Sonnets

A type of poem that consists of 14 lines and follows a specific rhyme scheme, often used by Petrarch in his poetry.

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12

The Decameron

A collection of short stories by Boccaccio that is considered a masterpiece of Italian literature and a major influence on the development of the short story genre.

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13

Northern Renaissance

Cultural and artistic movement in Northern Europe during the 15th and 16th centuries characterized by renewed interest in classical learning, individualism, and humanism.

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14

Humanism

The belief in the importance of individualism, reason, and the study of classical literature and philosophy, which was a key characteristic of the Northern Renaissance.

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15

Protestant Reformation

A religious movement that challenged the authority of the Catholic Church and led to the establishment of new Protestant churches during the Northern Renaissance.

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16

Artistic Innovation

A key characteristic of the Northern Renaissance, characterized by experimentation with new techniques and styles, a focus on realism, and attention to detail in art.

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17

Scientific Advancements

A key characteristic of the Northern Renaissance, characterized by significant contributions to fields such as astronomy, mathematics, and anatomy.

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18

Albrecht Dürer

A German artist known for his highly detailed engravings and woodcuts featuring religious and mythological themes during the Northern Renaissance.

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19

Jan van Eyck

A Flemish painter known for his use of oil paint and attention to detail, whose most famous work is the Ghent Altarpiece during the Northern Renaissance.

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20

Desiderius Erasmus

A Dutch humanist and scholar who was a leading figure in the Northern Renaissance, known for his critical approach to religion and belief in the importance of education.

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21

William Shakespeare

An English playwright and poet widely regarded as one of the greatest writers in the English language, whose works, including Hamlet and Romeo and Juliet, are still performed and studied today during the Northern Renaissance.

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22

Printing Press

Invented by Johannes Gutenberg in the mid-15th century, it revolutionized the way information was disseminated during the Renaissance period. It allowed for the quick and cheap production of books, leading to an increase in literacy rates and the spread of new ideas.

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23

William Shakespeare

One of the most widely read and influential writers in the English language, his plays and sonnets were disseminated through the printing press, making him famous during the Renaissance.

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24

Galileo Galilei

His scientific works were disseminated through the printing press, challenging the prevailing views of the universe and helping to usher in the Scientific Revolution during the Renaissance.

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25

Christopher Columbus

Italian explorer who sailed for Spain and discovered the New World in 1492.

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26

Vasco da Gama

Portuguese explorer who sailed around the southern tip of Africa and reached India in 1498.

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27

Ferdinand Magellan

Portuguese explorer who led the first circumnavigation of the globe in 1519-1522.

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28

Francis Drake

English explorer who circumnavigated the globe and raided Spanish ships and settlements in the late 16th century.

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29

European expansion

refers to the period of time when European powers expanded their influence and control over other regions of the world.

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30

The Columbian Exchange

refers to the exchange of plants, animals, and diseases between the Old World (Europe, Africa, and Asia) and the New World (the Americas) following Christopher Columbus's arrival in the Americas in 1492.

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31

slave trade

began in the 15th century when Portuguese traders started importing slaves from Africa to work on sugar plantations in the Atlantic islands and Brazil.

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32

Triangular trade

This trade involved three continents

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33

Commercial Revolution

A period of European economic expansion, colonialism, and mercantilism that lasted from the 16th to the 18th century.

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34

Treaty of Tordesillas

The rivalry between Spain and Portugal over control of the Americas led to the _______ in 1494, which divided the New World between the two powers.

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