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Great Awakening

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42 Terms

1

Great Awakening

A religious movement that swept through the colonies in the 1730s and 1740s, religious devotion was revived.

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2

Middle Passage

A voyage that brought enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to North America and the West Indies

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3

Jonathan Edwards

Preacher during the First Great Awakening; "Sinners in the hands of angry god"

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4

Triangular Trade

A three way system of trade during 1600-1800s, Africa sent slaves to America, America sent Raw Materials to Europe, and Europe sent Guns and Rum to Africa

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5

Old Lights

Only believed you could go to heaven if you were chosen beforehand

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6

Peter Zenger

1734-1735: Printer in NY charged with false word because he published criticism of the governor, acquitted by jury, judge believed Zenger should be punished even if his words were true. Zenger established the basic idea of freedom of the press.

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7

New Lights

Only believed you could go to heaven if you earned your way there.

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8

Seven Years' War (French and Indian War)

War fought in the colonies from 1754 to 1763 between the English and the French for possession of the Ohio River Valley area. The English won the war and the Peace of Paris was negotiated in 1763.

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9

Procolmation of 1763

After Britain won the Seven Years' War and gained land in North America, it issued the Royal Proclamation of 1763, which prohibited American colonists from settling west of Appalachia.

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10

Solitary neglect

1610-1763. England's policy that lead to the growth of self government in the colonies and caused the colonies to become used to acting independently, they didn't enforce their laws in the colonies during this time.

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11

Sugar Act of 1764

It provided for a strongly enforced tax on sugar, molasses, and other products imported into the American colonies from non-British Caribbean sources, and prohibited all importation of foreign rum.

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12

Quartering Act of 1765

A British law passed by Parliament at the request of General Thomas Gage, the British military commander in America, that required colonial governments to provide barracks and food for British troops.

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13

Stamp Act of 1765

This act required colonists to pay for an official stamp or seal when they bought paper items including paper, legal documents, and playing cards.

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14

Virtual Representation

British governmental theory that Parliament spoke for all British subjects, including Americans, even if they did not vote for its members.

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15

Stamp Act Congress (1765)

27 delegates from 9 colonies met from October 7-24, 1765, and drew up a list of declarations and petitions against the new taxes imposed on the colonies. This starts the idea of unity within the colonies.

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16

Navigation Acts (1651-1673)

Laws that governed trade between England and its colonies. Colonists were required to ship certain products exclusively to England. These acts made colonists very angry because they were forbidden from trading with other countries. Britain thought it would bring independence by decreasing the dependence on foreign goods.

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17

Townshend Acts (1767)

Passed by Parliament, put a tax on glass, lead, paper, and tea. The acts caused protest from the colonists, who found ways around the taxes such as buying smuggled tea. Due to its little profits, the Townshend Acts were repealed in 1770, except for the tax on tea. The tax on tea was kept to keep alive the principle of Parliamentary taxation.

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18

Writs of Assistance (1767)

Documents which served as a general search warrant, allowing customs officials to enter any ship or building that they suspected for any reason might hold smuggled goods.

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19

Boston Massacre

The first bloodshed of the American Revolution (1770), as British guards at the Boston Customs House opened fire on a crowd, killing five Americans. Paul Revere used this to help stir the distrust of Britain.

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20

Tea Act of 1773

Law passed by parliament allowing the British East India Company to sell its low-cost tea directly to the colonies - undermining colonial tea merchants; led to the Boston Tea Party

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21

First Continental Congress (1774)

Colonial Unity, all colonies (except Gregoria) met to discuss a response to the Intolerable Acts; adopted the Declaration and Resolves in which they: Declared the Intolerable Acts null and void. Recommended that colonists arm themselves and that militias be formed. Recommended a boycott of British imports.

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22

Lexington and Concord, 1775

The first military engagements of the Revolution, fought on April 19, 1775 within the towns of Lexington and Concord near Boston. Marked the outbreak of armed conflict between Britain and the colonies. British Army regulars were ordered to destroy military supplies that were reportedly stored by the Massachusetts militia at Concord. The first shots were fired just as the sun was rising at Lexington. The militia was outnumbered and fell back. Other British colonists, hours later at the North Bridge in Concord, fought and defeated three companies of the king's troops. The outnumbered soldiers of the British Army fell back from the Minutemen after a pitched battle in open territory. More Minutemen arrived soon thereafter and inflicted heavy damage on the British regulars as they marched back towards Boston. The occupation of surrounding areas by the Massachusetts Militia marked the beginning of the Siege of Boston. The British end up killing 8 colonists.

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23

2nd Continental Congress (1775)

  1. Sent the "Olive Branch Petition" 2) Created a continental army with George Washington as the leader. 3) Agreed to write a formal letter declaring their independence from England.

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24

Bunker Hill (Breed's Hill)

(June 17, 1775) Site of a battle early in the Revolutionary War. This battle contested control of two hills overlooking Boston Harbor. The British captured the hills after the Americans ran out of ammunition. Battle implied that Americans could fight the British if they had sufficient supplies.

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25

Olive Branch Petition (1775)

A conciliatory measure adopted by the Continental Congress, the final peace offer to Britain, professing American loyalty and seeking an end to the hostilities. King George rejected the petition and proclaimed the colonies in rebellion.

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26

Decleration of Independence

A U.S. document adopted by the Continental Congress on July 4, 1776, during the Revolutionary War, to announce the separation of the American colonies from Britain. Written predominately by Thomas Jefferson, it asserted "that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness."

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27

British Strengths

Military and Economy were more powerful. Many loyalists were still in America. Weak government under the Continental Congress and Articles of Confederation.

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28

Colonists Strengths

They had the home ground advantage and could use gorilla warfare. Resilient military and political leadership. Had a cause to fight for and France's support.

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29

Benjamin Franklin

American intellectual, inventor, and politician He helped to negotiate French support for the American Revolution, France provide naval support and soldiers.

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30

Trenton, New Jersey

On Christmas night 1776, Washington crossed the Delaware and took this city to stop German troops.

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31

Battle of Yorktown (1781)

The last major battle of Revolution. The French navy and ground troops were crucial to victory. Cornwallis and his troops were trapped, stuck between the French navy and American Army and eventually surrendered.

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32

Battle of Saratoga

American victory over British troops in 1777 that was a turning point in the American Revolution, France joins war on the side of America.

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33

Samuel Adams

American Revolutionary leader and patriot, Founder of the Sons of Liberty and one of the most vocal patriots for independence; signed the Declaration of Independence, helped organize the Boston Tea Party.

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34

Treaty of Paris 1783

This treaty ended the Revolutionary War and was negotiated by Benjamin Franklin. recognized the independence of the American colonies, and granted the colonies the territory from the southern border of Canada to the northern border of Florida, and from the Atlantic coast to the Mississippi River.

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35

Impacts of the American Revolution

States had rules banning some British ideas such as nobility, but most states didn't have full democracy. The 1783 Treaty of Paris ended the Revolutionary War, and the world would never be the same. The contagion of liberty spread, inspiring people to revolt against their leadership in France, Haiti, Ireland, Poland, the Netherlands, and throughout the Spanish empire.

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36

John Locke

English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the subjects and in which the government serves the people; also said everyone has natural rights to life, liberty, and property.

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37

Why did the natives align with the British?

The British limited colonial settlement.

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38

Crispus Attucks

Sailor of African-American and Native ancestry who died in the Boston Massacre.

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39

Currency Act of 1764

This act applied to all of the colonies. It banned the production of paper money in the colonies in an effort to combat the inflation caused by Virginia's decision to get itself out of debt by issuing more paper money, destabilized colonial economy.

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40

Thomas Paine

American Revolutionary leader and pamphleteer (born in England) who supported the American colonist's fight for independence and supported the French Revolution (1737-1809)

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41

General William Howe

He took command of British troops in North America after the Battle of Bunker Hill. He captured New York and Philadelphia, but botched the plan to isolate the New England colonies in 1777. He resigned in 1778.

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42

Sons and Daughters of Liberty

Organizations that led protests, helped American soldiers, instated a boycott, and generally resisted the British, formed in 1765.

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