Homer's World

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Epic Poetry

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Epic Poetry

Long narrative poetry about an epic hero’s adventures. Starts in media res(starts in the middle and then recounts). Very serious - that’s the nature of it. Epics are passed down (orally). Uses epithets(tagline “Ivan the Great”) and repetition to mimic memory aids.

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In Media Res

Starts in the middle of the action and recounts from past back to present. (basic idea)

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Homer

The poet that was credited for writing two of the most influential/famous Greek epics.

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The Illiad and The Odyssey

Two of the most influential/famous Greek epics.

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Trojan War

A legendary war that took place in 1200 B.C (750-725 BC) between Sparta and Troy. Caused because Paris stole Helen. Spartans vs Trojans.

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King of Sparta

Menelaus

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Queen of Sparta

Helen; Face that launched 1000 ships.

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Spartan General

Agamemnon

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Creator of the Trojan Horse plan

Odysseus

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Achillies

A greek warrior in the major war (main). Week point is his heel.

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Prince who kidnapped Helen

Paris

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Prince's Brother

Hector (he was a good warrior but also a jerk)

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Goddess who supports the Trojans

Aphrodite

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Goddess who supports the Spartans

Athena

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Odysseus’s homeland

Ithaca (by the side of Greece)

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Odysseus’s wife

Penelope

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Odysseus’s son

Telemachus

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Assets of Odysseus as a warrior

Determined, strong, and brave (Biggest: His Intelligence; Guile)

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In Homer’s time, what did most Greeks believe about their gods and goddesses?

They took an active interest in human affairs, often engaging in their own trivial quarrels and petty jealousies. Gods were like humans (emotionally).

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Epic Hero

(Hero Archetype)

Noble Birth Extraordinary Abilities (superhuman strength, craftiness, etc.) Vast Traveler Great Warrior Receives supernatural assistance Embodies ideals and values that a culture considers admirable. Emerges victories from perilous situations Heroric flaw (hubris)

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Epic Plot

Strange Creatures Large-Scale Events Challenges to chapter (temptations, disloyalty, tough choices….) Divine Intervention Treacherous Weather

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Epic Setting

Includes fantastic and exotic lands. Involves more than one nation.

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Archetypes

(Bottom of Hero’s Journey Thing)

Hero Mentor Threshold Guardian - Holds hero back Herold - Alarm figure (displays danger to come) Shapeshifter Shadow - The actual enemy Trickster - Good or Bad (Kinda like a clown)

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Epic Themes,

Universal Concerns

Courage Loyalty Justice/Revenge Trickery/Deception Temptation A Homecoming/Love for one’s nation

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Ordinary World

Describe the protagonist's ordinary world. Get to know the character. See how special the new world is. (comparisons)

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Call to Adventure

Why does the character have to venture out of his/her comfort zone? The start of the plotline. Hero's world is disturbed and a challenge w/ high stakes is presented.

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Refusal of the Call

The protagonist has second thoughts or a person/situation almost stops them. The hero starts to doubt themselves and their abilities. Communicates risks and likelihood of failure.

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Meeting the Mentor

A being helps the hero. The mentor gives the hero confidence and courage to take on the adventure. The hero is given knowledge an basic workings of this new world.

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Crossing the Threshold

The journey had begun. This is the true start. The hero accepts their fate and takes on the challenge to venture into the new world.

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Tests/Allies/Enemies/Temptation

The ups and downs of the journey. The hero meets people inhabiting the world and starts to understand the makings. The people they meet could be helpful or harmful to their progress.

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Approach to the Innermost Cave

The preparation stage before the hero ventures into the story's heart. What the hero has to overcome + confront. 2-Sided = physical and personal.

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Supreme Ordeal

Death and rebirth. Hero is at their worst (dies/almost dies). The hero faces their greatest fear and this is the most central, essential, magical stage. Climax.

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Seizing the Sword/Transformation

The hero changes their outlook/approach. Celebration. The hero replenishes their energy and the readers get a chance to breathe before the hero continues. The hero's outlook, however, has changed and the hero themselves has become a new individual.

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The Road Back

The hero is victorious. The journey is completed and now the hero must make the journey back to the ordinary world. They might have to make a very important decision here.

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Resurrection

The hero is a new and better person back in the ordinary world. The final showdown between the shadow and the hero. Their most dangerous meeting w/ death.

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Return with the Elixir

The final reward of the story. The lesson/treasure from the new world that has been brought back to the ordinary world. The stories closure.

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Creator of the Hero's Journey

Jospeh Campbell

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