Chapter 9: Global Change

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Fertilizer use

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51 Terms

1

Fertilizer use

________ is the primary source of nitrous oxide emissions.

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2

Higher air temperatures

________ have been proven to result in higher incidences of heat- related deaths caused by cardiovascular disease, heat exhaustion, heat stroke, hyperthermia, and diabetes.

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3

Dutch elm disease

________ is transmitted to elm trees by elm bark beetles — killing over half of them elm trees in the northern US.

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4

commercial fisheries

European green crabs found their way into the San Francisco Bay area in 1989 threatening __________.

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5

global climate

As the oceans store a large amount of heat, even small changes in these currents can have a large and lasting effect on the ________.

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6

Water hyacinth

It forms dense mats, reducing sunlight for submerged plants and aquatic organisms, crowding out native aquatic plants, and clogging waterways and intake pipes.

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7

Zebra mussels

They can attach to almost any hard surface—clogging water intake and discharge pipes, attaching themselves to boat hulls and docks, and even attaching to native mussels and crayfish.

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8

thermal expansion

The amount of energy absorbed and stored by the oceans has an important role in the rise of sea levels due to _____.

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9

Arctic

The _____ region is a large natural source of methane.

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10

stratosphere

Volcanic gases that reach the ______ have a long-term effect on climate.

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11

tectonic plates

The movement of _______ causes volcanoes and mountains to form, which can also contribute to changes in the climate

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12

mosquitoes

Due to global warming, ______ have more places to breed, which increases malaria, dengue fever, Zika virus, and yellow fever rates.

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13

Antarctica

The main ice-covered landmass is ________ at the South Pole, with about 90% of the world’s ice and 70% of its freshwater.

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14

50%

The total surface area of glaciers worldwide has decreased _____ since the end of the 19th century.

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15

Sea-level rise

________ threatens to inundate many coastal wetlands, threatening biota that cannot move inland due to coastal development.

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16

absorb

As the oceans _______ more heat from the atmosphere, sea surface temperatures rise and ocean circulation patterns change.

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17

store

As the oceans _____ a large amount of heat, even small changes in these currents can have a large and lasting effect on the global climate.

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18

carbon dioxide

The world’s oceans contain more _______ than the atmosphere.

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19

methane

Agricultural activities, waste management, and energy use all contribute to _______ emissions.

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20

nitrous oxide

Fertilizer use is the primary source of _________ emissions.

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21

infrared radiation

When sunlight strikes Earth’s surface, some of it is reflected back toward space as ________ (heat).

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22

Greenhouse gases

It absorb this infrared radiation and trap the heat in the atmosphere.

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23

global warming

Due to ________, mosquitoes have more places to breed, which increases malaria, dengue fever, Zika virus, and yellow fever rates.

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24

Ocean currents

________ carry heat around the Earth.

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25

Atomic oxygen

________ can combine with oxygen molecules to form ozone.

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26

Stratosphere

Contains approximately 97% of the ozone in the atmosphere, and most of it lies between 9 and 25 miles (15-40 km) above Earths surface

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27

UVA

It is closest to blue light in the visible spectrum and is the form of ultraviolet radiation that usually causes skin tanning

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28

UVB

It causes blistering sunburns and is associated with skin cancer

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29

UVC

It is found only in the stratosphere and is largely responsible for the formation of ozone

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30

Ozone Layer

A belt of naturally occurring ozone gas that sits between 9 and 19 miles (15-30 km) above Earth and serves as a shield from the harmful ultraviolet B radiation emitted by the sun

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31

Ozone

A highly reactive molecule and is constantly being formed and broken down in the stratosphere

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32

Chlorofluorocarbons

These are nonflammable chemicals that contain atoms of carbon, chlorine, and fluorine

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33

Halocarbons (halons)

These are organic chemical molecules that are composed of at least one carbon atom with one or more halogen atoms; the most common halogens are fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine

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34

Agriculture

Mostly comes from the management of agricultural soils

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35

Commercial and residential buildings

On-site energy generation and burning fuels for heat in buildings or cooking in homes

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36

Energy supply

The burning of coal, natural gas, and oil for electricity and heat is the largest single source of global greenhouse gas emissions

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37

Industry

Primarily involves fossil fuels burned on-site at facilities for energy; cement manufacturing also contributes significant amounts of CO2 gas

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38

Land use and forestry

It includes deforestation of old-growth forests (carbon sinks), land clearing for agriculture, strip-mining, fires, and the decay of peat soils

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39

Transportation

It involves fossil fuels that are burned for road, rail, air, and marine transportation

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40

Waste and wastewater

Landfill and wastewater methane (CH4), and incineration as a method of waste management

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41

Carbon dioxide (CO2)

It is an important heat-trapping (greenhouse) gas, and is released through human activities such as deforestation and burning fossil fuels, as well as natural processes such as respiration and volcanic eruptions

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42

Fluorinated gases

Industrial processes, refrigeration, and the use of a variety of consumer products all contribute to this gases, which include hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6)

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43

Black carbon (soot)

It is a solid particle or aerosol, not a gas, but it also contributes to the warming of the atmosphere

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44

Ocean acidification

It occurs when atmospheric carbon dioxide reacts with seawater to form carbonic acid,

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45

Kyoto Protocol (2005)

A plan created by the United Nations to reduce the effects of climate change, which results in a reduction in the pH of ocean water over an extended period of time

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46

Montreal Protocol (1987)

An international treaty designed to phase out the production of substances that are responsible for ozone depletion

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47

Paris Agreement (2016)

It deals with greenhouse gas emissions and mitigation

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48

Adaptation

The ability to survive in changing environmental conditions

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49

Acclimatization

The process by which an individual organism adjusts to a gradual change in its environment allowing it to maintain performance across a range of environmental conditions

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50

Invasive species

These are animals and plants that are transported to any area where they do not naturally live

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51

Endangered Species

A species considered to be facing a very high risk of extinction in the wild

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