Oral Com 11: Speech Acts and Communicative Competencies

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Austin

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50 Terms

1

Austin

________ also introduced the concept of performative utterances: statements which enable the speaker to perform something just by stating it.

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2

J L Austin

According to ________ (1962), a philosopher of language and the developer of the Speech Act Theory, there are three types of acts in every utterance, given the right circumstances or context.

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3

Yano

________ (n.d.) explained it as knowledge of non- verbal strategies to compensate for breakdowns, such as recognizing discourse structure, activating background knowledge, contextual guessing, and tolerating ambiguity.

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Locution

________ means the phrase or sentence that has meaning.

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field of communication

It is the ________ that focuses on how people use message to generate meanings within and across various contexts and cultures.

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clarity

It refers to: accuracy, ________, comprehensibility, coherence, expertise, effectiveness and.

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performance

The ________ of the act of saying something with a specific intention or illocution.

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Perlocutionary

________- RECEIVER WASHING THE DISHES.

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9

Chomsky

It refers to what ________ calls linguistic competence and involves the mastering of the linguistic code including vocabulary, grammar, pronunciation, spelling and word formation.

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performative utterance

A(n) ________ said by the right person under the right circumstances results in a change in the world.

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Relevance

________ is simply saying things which are ________ to the conversation.

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speech act

A(n) ________ might contain just one word or several words or sentences.

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external situation

It is a type of illocutionary act which brings a change in the ________.

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appropriate interaction

It is the degree to which a communicators goals are achieved through effective and ________.

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Communicative competence

________ is that aspect of our competence that enables us to convey and interpret messages and to negotiate meanings.

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cultural conventions

To Yano (n.d.), it is the pragmatic aspect of various speech acts, namely, the cultural values, norms, and other socio- ________ in social context.

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management of messages

It is the ________ for the purpose of creating meaning.

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18

Yano

________ (n.d) describes discourse competence as "the knowledge of rules regarding the cohesión (grammatical links) and coherence (appropriate combination of communicative function) of various types of discourse.

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19

speech act

A(n) ________ is an utterance that a speaker makes to achieve an intended effect.

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Communicative Competence

________ refers to "what a speaker needs to know in order to be communicatively competent in a speech community.

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21

Locutionary

SAYING OF THE  WORDS

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Illocutionary

SPEAKER REQUESTS THE RECEIVER TO  WASH THE DISHES

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Perlocutionary

RECEIVER WASHING THE DISHES

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INFERRED SPEECH ACT

Do you have the ability to hand over the rice

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INDIRECT SPEECH ACT

Please pass the rice

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Austin also introduced the concept of performative utterances

statements which enable the speaker to perform something just by stating it

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27

It refers to

accuracy, clarity, comprehensibility, coherence, expertise, effectiveness and

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28

SPEECH ACTS

A speech act is an utterance that a speaker makes to achieve an intended effect

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LOCUTIONARY ACT

It is the actual act of uttering.

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ILLOCUTIONARY ACT

The performance of the act of saying something with a specific intention or illocution.

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PERLOCUTIONARY ACT

It is the resulting act of what is said. This effect is based on the particular context in which the speech act was mentioned.

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INDIRECT SPEECH ACTS

When a speaker does not explicitly state the intended meaning behind the utterance.

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PERFORMATIVES

Statements which enable the speaker to perform something just by stating it.

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ASSERTIVE

It is a type of illocutionary act in which the speaker expresses belief about the truth of a proposition. Some examples of an assertive act are suggesting, putting forward, swearing, boasting, and concluding.

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DIRECTIVE

It is a type of illocutionary act in which the speaker tries to make the addressee perform an action. Some examples of a directive act are asking, ordering, requesting, inviting, advising, and begging.

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COMMISSIVE

It is a type of illocutionary act which commits the speaker to doing something in the future. Examples of a commissive act are promising, planning, vowing, and betting.

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EXPRESSIVE

It is a type of illocutionary act in which the speaker expresses his/her feelings or emotional reactions. Some examples of an expressive act are thanking, apologizing, welcoming, and deploring.

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DECLARATION

It is a type of illocutionary act which brings a  change in the external situation. Simply put, declarations bring into existence or cause the state of affairs which they refer to. Some examples of declarations are blessing, firing, baptizing, bidding, passing a sentence, and excommunicating.

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COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE

It is the degree to which a communicator’s goals are achieved through effective and appropriate interaction

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Communicative Competence according to Dell Hymes 1972

Communicative competence is that aspect of our competence that enables us to convey and interpret messages and to negotiate meanings

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MEANING OF “WELL”

It refers to: accuracy, clarity, comprehensibility, coherence, expertise, effectiveness and

appropriateness

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CANALE & SWAIN (1980)

  • Linguistic /Grammatical Competence (Accuracy)

  • Sociolinguistic Competence

  • Discourse Competence

  • Strategic Competence

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43

LINGUISTIC COMPETENCE

It refers to what Chomsky calls linguistic competence and involves the mastering of the linguistic code including vocabulary, grammar, pronunciation, spelling and word formation.

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DISCOURSE COMPETENCE

It deals with the interpretation of individual message elements and is also related to the ability for combining ideas to achieve cohesion in form and coherence in thought.

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SOCIOLINGUISTIC COMPETENCE

It refers to the extent to which utterances are produced and understood appropriately in different __social contexts.

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STRATEGIC COMPETENCE

It refers to the coping strategies used to start, finish, maintain or repair communication so as to overcome limitations in language knowledge.

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47

Relevance

is simply saying things which are relevant to the conversation.

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48

Quality

involves credibility or honesty. How true and correct are we saying?

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49

Quantity

in conversations implies that we talk only of what is needed, no more, no less.

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50

Manner

is saying things with clarity and order. Speak the truth as briefly and directly as possible to avoid ambiguity.

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