3: Urban America (U.S. History II)

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Ulysses S. Grant

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Ulysses S. Grant

Scandals during this President's administration include Crédit Mobilier, the Whiskey Ring, Gould's attempt to corner the gold market, and Trader Post Scandal.

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2

James Garfield

Half-breed Republican President who was assassinated for refusing to give away government jobs

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3

Chester Arthur

Stalwart Republican President who sympathized with reform, helping to pass the Pendleton Civil Service Act

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4

Grover Cleveland

Democrat President who doubled the number of federal jobs requiring exams and was elected to non-consecutive terms

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5

Benjamin Harrison

Stalwart Republican President who filled almost every non-exam job with Republican supporters

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6

William McKinley

Republican President who promised to uphold the gold standard during the 1896 campaign and was backed by wealthy industrialists

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7

Sherman Antitrust Act

Law created to limit the power of monopolies in restraint of competition; allowed federal troops to intervene against Pullman strikers in 1894 who blocked mail cars

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8

Stalwarts

Republicans who strongly defended the spoils and patronage system

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9

Half-breeds

Republicans who favored civil service reform

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10

Tammany Hall

The Democratic Party political machine of 1800s in New York City that used graft, bribery, and rigged elections to rob the city of over $200 million in tax money.

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11

William "Boss" Tweed

Political boss who was an early leader of Tammany Hall

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12

Populist party

Farmers, reformers and labor leaders formed this political party in the elections of 1892 and 1896

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13

Whiskey Ring

During the Grant administration, a group of officials were importing whiskey and using their offices to avoid paying the taxes on it, cheating the treasury out of millions of dollars.

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14

Crédit Mobilier

Fraudulent construction company created to take the profits of the Union Pacific Railroad using government funds and gave padded construction contracts to Congress members

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15

National Grange

Organization founded by Oliver H. Kelley that helped improve the lives of isolated farmers

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16

Farmers' Alliance

network of farmers' organizations that worked for political and economic reforms in the late 1800s

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17

Interstate Commerce Act

1887 law passed to regulate railroad and other interstate businesses

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18

Granger laws

State laws enacted in the Midwest in the 1870s that regulated rates charged by railroads

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19

Pendleton Civil Service Act

Federal law that created civil service commission so that hiring and promotion would be based on exam scores rather than patronage, but covered only 10% of federal jobs

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20

Greenbacks

Paper money not backed by gold or silver

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21

Cooperatives

Organizations in which groups of farmers pool their resources to buy and sell goods

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22

Gold standard

Monetary system in which paper money and coins are equal to the value of a certain amount of gold

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23

Bland-Allison Act

1878 law requiring the federal government to purchase and coin more silver

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24

Bimetallism

The use of both gold and silver as a basis for a national monetary system

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25

Kickbacks

When someone "charges" the city for a service but actually overcharges and gives what they overcharged to the political machine

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26

Spoils system

Employment based on rewarding party loyalists and friends

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27

Patronage

Granting favors or making appointments to office in return for political support

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28

Embezzlement

Stealing money or property that has been entrusted to your care

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29

Graft

Illegal use of political influence for personal gain

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30

Nepotism

Favoritism or jobs given to relatives by those in power

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31

Cronyism

The appointment of friends and associates to positions of authority, without proper regard to their qualifications

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32

Trader Post Scandal

Secretary of War William Belknap pocketed bribes from suppliers to the Indian Reservations

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33

Jim Crow laws

Laws designed to enforce segregation of blacks from whites

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34

Segregation

Separation of people based on racial, ethnic, or other differences

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35

Lynching

Putting to death a person by the illegal action of a mob

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36

Atlanta Compromise

Argument that African-Americans should not focus on civil rights or social equality but concentrate on economic self-improvement

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37

W.E.B. DuBois

Rejected the Atlanta Compromise and called for immediate civil and voting rights and equal education for African Americans

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38

Booker T. Washington

Founder of the Tuskegee Institute that created the Atlanta Compromise

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39

Gospel of Wealth

Book written by Andrew Carnegie that described the responsibility of the rich to be philanthropists

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40

Social Gospel

Protestant movement which preached charity and social responsibility as a means of salvation

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41

Jane Addams

Founder of Hull House and winner of the Nobel Prize for her social work

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42

Settlement houses

Community centers located in the slums and near tenements that gave aid to the poor, especially immigrants

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43

Mark Twain

Realist author and humorist best known for his novels about Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn

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44

Jack London

Naturalist author best known for his novels "The Call of the Wild" and "White Fang"

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45

Ellis Island

Immigration processing center that open in New York Harbor in 1892

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46

Angel Island

A receiving station on the west coast, active after 1910, and allowed immigrants from Asia to enter the US

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47

Paper sons

Chinese men who entered the country by falsely claiming to be sons of Chinese American citizens

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48

Chinese Exclusion Act

Denied any additional Chinese laborers to enter the country while allowing students and merchants to immigrate

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49

Steerage

A large open area beneath a ship's deck, often used to house traveling immigrants

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50

Trachoma

Chronic, contagious form of conjunctivitis that typically leads to blindness

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51

William Jennings Bryan

During the 1896 campaign, he promised "Bimetallism" and gave the "Cross of Gold" speech denouncing the Gold Standard

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52

Exodusters

African Americans who moved from the Jim Crow South to Kansas

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53

Plessy v. Ferguson

Supreme Court case that ruled Jim Crow laws were constitutional as long as facilities for whites and African Americans were "separate but equal"

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54

Poll tax

A requirement to be pay before voting

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55

Literacy test

A test given to persons to prove they can read and write before being allowed to register to vote

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56

Grandfather clause

A clause in registration laws allowing people who do not meet registration requirements to vote if they or their ancestors had voted before 1867.

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57

Mary Church Terrell

Formed the Women Wage Earner's Association and led a boycott against department stores in Washington, D.C. that refused to serve African Americans

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58

Ida B. Wells

African-American journalist who led the fight against lynching by publishing books and articles

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