PSYC 201 Unit 9

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What are the 9 developmental theories

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1

What are the 9 developmental theories

  • Nature vs nurture

  • Continuity vs discontinuity

  • Ecological model

  • Psychosexual developmental

  • Morality

  • Physical developmental

  • Cognition

  • Attachment

  • Psychosocial development

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2

What is nature vs nurture

Whether nature (genetics/biology/hormones) or nurture (environment/upbringing/experience) has a greater impact on development

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3

What is continuity vs discontinuity

Comparing development to a ramp or a staircase (gradual vs discrete changes)

A butterfly going through metamorphosis would be an example of discontinuity as there are discrete stages

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4

Who developed the Ecological model

Urie Bronfenbrenner

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5

Can the ecological model be tested and is it disputed

No/not very disputed

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6

From innermost to outermost, what are the levels of the ecological model

  • Child

  • Micro

  • Meso

  • Exo

  • Macro

    • Chrono

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7

What are the aspects of the child level of the ecological model

Nature (sex at birth/intelligence/health)

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8

What are the different aspects of the microsystem of the ecological model

Those with regular and direct contact with the children (parents, teachers, friends) influence through modelling, rewards, and more

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9

What are the different aspects of the mesosystem of the ecological model

The relationships between individuals (not with the child) for example Mom/Dad, teacher/coach, between friends, etc.

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10

What are the aspects of the exosystem of the ecological model

The indirect influences (people you don’t talk to in class but are still there, atmosphere of the neighbourhood, etc.)

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11

What are the different aspects of the macrosystem in the ecological model

religion, geographical identity, ethnicity (racialized or marginalized), music

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12

What are the different aspects of the chronosystem of the ecological model

Macro level aspects specific to a historical time period (era of smartphones, airplane travel, COVID-19 pandemic, the Great Depression)

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13

What did the ecological model NOT account for

Influencing of inner rings outwards

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14

Who was the major supporter of psychosexual development

Sigmund Freud

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15

At a basic level, what is psychosexual development about

How we resolve unconscious desires and achieve pleasure/satisfaction

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16

Who is best known for the various stages of moral development

Lawrence Kohlberg

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17

What is the Heinz dilemma

A hypothetical situation used to assess an individual’s moral development

Having exhausted every other possibility, Heinz must decide whether to steal an expensive drug that offers the only hope of saving his dying wife

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18

What are different aspects of physical development

  • Motor development

  • Movement and coordination

  • Growth patterns

    • Cephalocaudal (head to tail development)

    • Proximodistal (vital organs and outwards)

    • Differentiation-grasping (flapper, sock puppet, pincher)

<ul><li><p>Motor development</p></li><li><p>Movement and coordination</p></li><li><p>Growth patterns</p><ul><li><p>Cephalocaudal (head to tail development)</p></li><li><p>Proximodistal (vital organs and outwards)</p></li><li><p>Differentiation-grasping (flapper, sock puppet, pincher)</p></li></ul></li></ul>
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19

Who is most associated with cognition development

Jean Piaget

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20

What are the different aspects of cognitive development

Recognizing patterns, thoughts/understanding, problem solving, perspective taking, mental understanding

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21

Who is highly associated with attachment development

Mary Ainsworth

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22

What are the different types of attachment styles/relationships

Secure, avoidant, anxious

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23

Who is most associated with psychosocial development

Erik Erikson

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24

What are the different aspects of psychosocial development

Step-like pathway, constant unconscious conflict (trust or don’t trust), can go back down the stairs

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25

What are the 3 stages of prenatal development

Zygote, embryo, fetus

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26

Explain what a zygote is

Period of 2 weeks where the zygote is not yet connected to the parent’s bloodstream

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27

Explain what an embryo is

Period of 2 and a half months where the embryo is most vulnerable to teratogens as this is when most specialization occurs

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28

Explain what a fetus is

A period of 6 months where the fetus is no longer specializing but rather it continues to grow and mature

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29

What are teratogens

Things that can harm the offspring (disease, drugs, toxic chemicals, etc)

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30

What measurement of pre-natal development is parent centred

Trimesters

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31

What ages do infancy include

0-3 years

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32

What is the average weigh of a newborn and its standard deviation

7.5 lbs +/- 1.25 lbs

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33

What are the risk of a newborn who is less than 5 lbs

May not be fully developed/stable on its own, may not have enough fat to regulate its temperature, possible genetic atypicality linked to the disorder

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34

What are the risks associated with a newborn who is greater than 10 lbs

Risk of infantile diabetes and/or pituitary gland issues

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35

How does the brain mature during the infancy period

Adapts reflexes, cough/sneeze

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36

What are the body proportions of a newborn

Mostly head and torso, very short legs

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37

What is the Babinski reflex

Stroke the bottom of an infants foot, and their toes should spread out

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38

What is the Moro reflex

Response to a sudden lack of support, arms out and arch back, detected by sense of balance through the inner ear

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39

What is the palmar reflex

The grasping response, will grasp what they feel

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40

What is rooting

If something touches an infants cheek, they will turn their head towards that side (aids in nursing to find the nipple)

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41

At what point should an infant be able to lift their head

1 month

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42

At what point should an infant be able to lift their chest

2 months

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43

At what point should an infant be able to reach with intent and coordination

3 months

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44

At what point should an infant be able to sit without support

4 months

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45

At what point should an infant be able to hold objects and with what grasping styles

5 months-flapper/sock puppet

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46

What point should an infant be able to sit alone

6 months

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47

What point should an infant be able to crawl

7-9 months

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48

At what point should an infant be able to stand with help

8-11 months

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49

What age should an infant be able to walk

12 months

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50

What point should an infant be able to hop/do the stairs/walk backwards

2+ years

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51

What ages does the oral psychosexual phase cover

0-2 years

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52

What are the different aspects of the oral phase

Finding pleasure and comfort through the mouth, may bite nails, smoke, or chew gum without sufficient stimulation

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53

What ages does the anal psychosexual phase cover

2-3 years

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54

What are the different aspects of the anal phase

Control and shame, anxious about making mistakes and may tense up physically—potty training

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55

What psychosocial phase is developed from ages 0-1

Trust vs mistrust

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56

What aspects of trust vs mistrust involve

Meeting an infant’s needs and learning to trust people

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57

What psychosocial phase is developed between 2-3 years

Autonomy vs doubt

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58

What is involved in the autonomy vs doubt phase

Dressing themselves, feeding themselves, independence, helicoptering leads to doubt and micromanaging

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59

Who is responsible for the “cuddle monkey”

Harry Harlow

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60

What did the “cuddle monkey” experiment prove

The monkeys spent more time with the cuddly “monkey” debunking Freud

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61

What are the potential reactions to the “strange situation” when the caregiver leaves the room and returns

Secure—upset with separation and comforted when reunited

Avoidant—indifferent

Anxious—distressed with separation and hostile when reunited

Disorganized—doesn’t show one of the three patterns, may be a red flag (infant doesn’t know what to expect), could indicate abuse or a developmental issue

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62

What aspects develop in the cognitive domain of an infant

Sensorimotor skills and responses

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63

How does an infant explore their environment

Develops cause and effect knowledge—kick crib and mobile moves, will do it again

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64

What ages do infants involuntarily and voluntarily imitate an individual

Less than 4 months and 9-12 months

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65

What age is object permanence developed

6 months

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66

What stage takes place between the ages of 3-6

Early childhood

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67

What stages of morality do those in early childhood have

Pre-conventional stages 1 and 2

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68

What are the pre-conventional stages of morality

Stage 1-“I don’t want to get in trouble”

Stage 2-“I want to get rewarded”

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69

What stages of psychosexual development do those in early childhood experience

Phalic stages

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70

What is the phalic stage

Time of social comparison, penis envy, Oedipus complex?

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71

What aspects of psychosocial development occur in early childhood

Initiative vs guilt

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72

What does initiative vs guilt mean

Can you invite yourself to play or do you feel guilty inviting yourself to play

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73

What stage of cognitive development do those in early childhood experience

Pre-operational stage/conservation

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74

What are the aspects of the pre-operational stage of cognition

Symbolism-number 2 means two things, two fingers

Ego-centrism-thinks everyone can see what they see, if they hide behind their hands then you can’t see them

Centred thinking-can sort by suit or number

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75

What does an individual in early childhood understand about the concept of conservation

Volume-will focus on height

Number-length over quantity (even when they can count)

Length-only look at the ending to see what is longer (if the child reads left-to-right or right-to-left the answer will change)

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76

What ages/grades are classified as late childhood

7-11 and grades 1-5

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77

What stages of morality are developed in late childhood

Conventional stages 3/4

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