Chem 1050 White Test 1

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The state of matter that changes significantly with pressure and temperature

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chapters 5 and 12

93 Terms

1

The state of matter that changes significantly with pressure and temperature

gas

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2

•Gases have relatively ____ densities.

low

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3

Gases form a solution in any _______

proportions

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4

arises from the force exerted by atmospheric gases on the earth’s surface; decreases with altitude

atmospheric pressure

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5

devices used to measure the pressure of a gas in an experiment.

Manometer

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6

a gas that exhibits linear relationships among these variables (pressure, temp, moles, and volume)

ideal gas

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7

do ideal gases exist?

no

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8

At constant temperature, the volume occupied by a fixed amount of gas is inversely proportional to the external pressure.

Boyle’s law

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9

Boyle’s law

V 1/P

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10

At constant pressure, the volume occupied by a fixed amount of gas is directly proportional to its absolute (Kelvin) temperature

Charles law

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11

charles law

V T

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12

at fixed temperature and pressure, equal volumes of any ideal gas contain equal numbers of particles (or moles).

avagadros law

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13

STP

1 atm and 0 degrees Celsius,

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14

standard molar volume

22.4 L

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15

is the volume of 1 mol of an ideal gas at STP.

standard molar volume

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16

The pressure exerted by each gas in a mixture

partial pressure

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17

the total pressure in a mixture is the sum of the partial pressures of the component gases.

Dalton’s Law of partial pressures

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18

At a given T, all gases in a sample have the same….

average kinetic energy

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19

Kinetic energy depends on both the

mass and the speed of a particle

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20

At the same T, a heavier gas particle moves more _____ than a lighter one.

slowly

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21

the process by which a gas escapes through a small hole in its container into an evacuated space.

effusion

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22

the rate of effusion of a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of its molar mass.

Graham’s law of effusion

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23

Real gases deviate most from ideal behavior at __ temperature and __ pressure

low; high

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24

adjusts the ideal gas law to take into account for the real volume of the gas particles and the effect of interparticle attractions

van der Waals equation

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25

Each physical state of matter is a ____, a physically distinct, homogeneous part of a system.

phase

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26

The properties of each phase are determined by the balance between the _***and *** energy of the particles

potential, kinetic

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27

The ____ energy, in the form of ____ ____, tends to draw particles together

potential; attractive forces

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28

The potential energy, in the form of attractive forces, tends to draw particles together

average speed

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29

found within a molecule

intramolecular forces (or bonding forces)

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30

found between  all molecules with partial charge, or between ions and molecules

intermolecular forces (or nonbonding forces)

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31

The physical behavior of each phase of matter is different because ….

the strength of these forces differ from state to state.

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32

gas has ____ attractions

no

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33

liquid has ____ attractions

stronger

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34

solid has ___________ attractions

predominant

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35

compressibility of a gas is…

high

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36

compressibility of a liquid is…

very low

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37

compressibility of a solid is….

almost none

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38

what is the relationship between temperature and kinetic energy of particles?

direct relationship

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39

what is the relationship between temp and attractive forces in a particle?

inverse relationship

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40

solid to liquid

melting/fusion

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41

liquid to gas

vaporizing

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42

gas to liquid

condensing

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43

liquid to solid

freezing

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44

solid to gas

sublimation

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45

gas to solid

deposition

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46

the heat released/gained as the substance changes from liquid to gas

heat of vaporization

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47

the heat released/gained as the substance changes from liquid to solid

heat of fusion

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48

Within a phase, heat flow is accompanied by a

change in temp

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49

During a phase change, heat flow occurs at…

constant temp

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50

Shows the change in temperature of a sample when heat is absorbed or released.

heating-cooling curve

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51

where molecules are leaving and entering the liquid at the same rate in a closed flask

dynamic equilibrium

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52

vapor pressure and temperature have a ____ relationship

direct

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53

This equation relates vapor pressure to temperature.

clausius-clapeyron equation

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54

•the temperature at which the vapor pressure equals the external pressure.

boiling point

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55

•is observed at standard atmospheric pressure or 760 torr.

normal boiling point

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56

As the external pressure on a liquid increases, the boiling point….

increases

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57

the densities of the liquid and gas phases become equal

critical point

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58

all three phases are in equilibrium

triple point

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59

Intermolecular forces are relatively ___ compared to bonding forces

weak

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60

Like charges repel each other; unlike charges attract

coulomb’s law

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61

one-half the closest distance between the nuclei of two nonbonded atoms

van der Waals radius

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62

the distance between two nonbonded atoms in adjacent molecules

van der Waals distance

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63

The Van Der waals radius is always ___ than the covalent radius

large

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64

the average distance between the nuclei of two bonded atoms

bond length

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65

one-half the distance between the nuclei of two covalently bonded atoms of the same element in a molecule

covalent radius

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66

periodic table trends for covalent and van der Waals radii

increase down and to the left

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67

the basis of attraction in a metallic bond is….

cations-delocalized electrons

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68

ion charge- dipole charge

ion-dipole

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69

polar bond to H- dipole charge

h bond

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70

dipole charges

dipole dipole

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71

ion charge- polarizable electron cloud

ion induced dipole

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72

dipole charge- polarizable electron cloud

dipole induced dipole

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73

polarizable electron cloud

dispersion (London)

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74

is possible for molecules that have a hydrogen atom covalently bonded to a small, highly electronegative atom with lone electron pairs, specifically N, O, or F.

hydrogen bonding

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75

the ease with which its electron cloud is distorted.

polarizability

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76

Smaller particles are ____ polarizable

less

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77

trend for polarizability on periodic table

increase down a group and decreases left to right

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78

arises when an instantaneous dipole in one particle induces a dipole in another, resulting in an attraction between them

dispersion/London forces

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79

stronger for more polarizable particles.

dispersion forces

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80

intramolecular forces are _________ than intermolecular forces

stronger

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81

the energy required to increase the surface area of a liquid

surface tension

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82

The stronger the forces between the particles the ___ the surface tension

higher

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83

surface tension decreases with ….

increasing temp

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84

the rising of a liquid through a narrow space against the pull of gravity

capillarity (capillary action)

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85

the resistance of a fluid to flow; Results from intermolecular attractions that impede the movement of molecules around and past each other

viscosity

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86

viscosity and intermolecular attractions have a ______ relationship

direct

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87

viscosity and temp have __ relationship

inverse

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88

water is the perfect solvent bc

•High specific heat capacity

•High heat of vaporization

•High surface tension

•High capillarity

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89

have well defined shapes due to the orderly arrangement of their particles

Crystalline solids

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90

lack orderly arrangement and have poorly defined shapes.

Amorphous solids

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91

composed of particles packed in an orderly three-dimensional array called the crystal lattice

crystal

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92

smallest portion of a crystal lattice that yields the crystal if it is repeated in all directions

unit cell

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93

the number of nearest neighbors of a particle in a crystal.

coordination number

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