Ethics in CJ Unit Exam 2

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Which of the following statements about social learning theory is true?

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Which of the following statements about social learning theory is true?

Social learning theory reflects the idea of modeling as the mechanism of development

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Which of the following is a type of test that measures an individual's ability to recognize and/or agree with moral terms?

recognition tests.

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______ can be defined as the individual's feelings of competence, and this sense is developed by comparing the self to others.

Self-efficacy

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According to Kohlberg, which is the first stage of moral development?

punishment and obedience orientation

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During Kohlberg's __________________ level, a person moves beyond the norms and laws of a society to determine universal good, that is, what is good for all societies.

Post-conventional

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Studies regarding biological sex differences in brain activity found evidence of sex differences in all except:

intelligence

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Which of the following is not associated with learning theory?

moral reasoning

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Which of the following statements about developmental theories is true?

Developmental theories propose that individuals mature physically, cognitively, and emotionally.

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A survey of police chiefs found that they recommend that ethics training should focus on __________________ rather than rules.

shared values and problem solving.

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According to learning theorists:

Moral beliefs arise from a habit of moral behavior that is the product of reinforcement.

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According to the "corruption continuum" organizations can become corrupt through all of the following except:

charismatic leadership.

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Ethical leaders should foster personal relationships with their subordinates in order to facilitate:

Modeling.

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Which of the following is not a characteristic of frontal lobe damage?

loss of motor function.

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Social learning theory was developed by:

Albert Bandura

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Sanitizing language, such as "wasting" or "whacking" instead of killing is an example of:

euphemistic labeling.

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Rewards that encourage unwanted behavior are called _______

Perverse incentives.

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Schafer also identified several elements of good leadership. Name one: _____

Taking responsibility

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Schafer identified five acts of commission and five acts of omission associated with the ineffective leader.Name two: _______

Laziness, and failure to take responsibility.

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A strong _________________ is someone who has relationship with subordinates, persuasive authority, provides and ethical model, is caring, committed, and visionary.

Leader.

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According to Klockars, what are the four elements of police power?

power, persuasion, force, and authority.

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Power is defined as:

The right inherent in a role to use any means to overcome resistance.

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Which of the following statements about police subculture is false?

decreasing crime rates have reduced the need for a "code of silence"

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The public servant model of policing includes all the following except:

Police are not public servants of those who commit crime.

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Souryal argued that there are different kinds of loyalty to superiors or to fellow officers, including all of the following except:

fragmented loyalty

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In relation to community policing and ethics, all of the following is true except:

There is evidence that there is more corruption in community policing models than with traditional law enforcement.

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Persuasion is defined as:

The use of signs, symbols, words, and arguments to induce compliance.

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The four major themes of formal ethical codes for law enforcement include all except:

Education.

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The informal values of police have been said to include which of the following?

All these are informal values of police: Cyncism, Loyalty, Force.

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_________ is different from the other three means of control in that it is physical.

Force.

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Authority is defined as:

The unquestionable entitlement to be obeyed that comes from fulfilling a specific role.

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Cohen and Feldberg include all of the following as ethical standards derived from the social contract except:

Efficiency.

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Crime control is an approach that is consistent with the following except:

Police officers serve all the people.

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Force is defined as:

The use of physical coercion to overcome the will of the individual.

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Another name for the code of silence or the practice of police officers to remain silent when fellow officers commit unethical actions is:

The Blue Curtain of Secrecy.

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Roland is a police officer in pursuit of a fleeing rape suspect. The chase is on foot, and Roland is a much faster runner than his partner. He catches the suspect out of sight of his partner. When his partner, Ted, arrives on the scene, he observes Roland striking the suspect, despite the fact that the suspect is already in handcuffs.

The suspect does file a complaint with Internal Affairs, and Ted is questioned about the incident. Ted tells the investigator that he observed nothing out of the ordinary: when he arrived at the scene the suspect was in custody and Roland was reading him his rights. This is an example of:

The Blue Curtain of Secrecy.

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Harris' "preventive policing" model includes:

The concepts of community policing, problem-oriented policing, and accountability mechanisms.

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Roland is a police officer in pursuit of a fleeing rape suspect. The chase is on foot, and Roland is a much faster runner than his partner. He catches the suspect out of sight of his partner. When his partner, Ted, arrives on the scene, he observes Roland striking the suspect, despite the fact that the suspect is already in handcuffs.

Ted understands that committing perjury in this case is wrong, and technically qualifies as corruption. What type of corruption is this?

"Noble cause" corruption.

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This concept suggests that each citizen in a society gives up some of their freedom and liberty in return for societal protection. This is called _______

Social Contract.

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Roland is a police officer in pursuit of a fleeing rape suspect. The chase is on foot, and Roland is a much faster runner than his partner. He catches the suspect out of sight of his partner. When his partner, Ted, arrives on the scene, he observes Roland striking the suspect, despite the fact that the suspect is already in handcuffs.

Ted chooses not to report his partner. He arrived at this decision by deciding that the greater good is served by preserving the rapist's conviction, rather than risk losing it due to an excessive force complaint. Ted does believe that Roland acted improperly, but decides that the community is better off if the rapist is incarcerated than if a complaint is pursued against an otherwise excellent officer. Ted's decision is consistent with:

Utilitarianism.

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A new police chief is sworn in. The city has been plagued with street crime and a poor relationship with the community. He has pledged to reduce crime and improve public satisfaction.

Assume the new chief sets up a D.A.R.E. program with the local schools, orders 25% of his patrol officers to switch to foot patrol, and sets up a citizen's advisory board. These actions would be consistent with:

Community policing.

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A new police chief is sworn in. The city has been plagued with street crime and a poor relationship with the community. He has pledged to reduce crime and improve public satisfaction.

If the new chief issues orders requiring patrol officers to issue citations or make arrests for any observed infraction, no matter how minor, this would be consistent with:

A 'zero tolerance' policy.

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Roland is a police officer in pursuit of a fleeing rape suspect. The chase is on foot, and Roland is a much faster runner than his partner. He catches the suspect out of sight of his partner. When his partner, Ted, arrives on the scene, he observes Roland striking the suspect, despite the fact that the suspect is already in handcuffs.

When the case comes to trial, Ted maintains his story on the witness stand. This is known informally as:

"Testilying"

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Which of the following statements about use-of-force statistics is false?

The vast majority of people believe that excessive force is used fairly frequently.

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Civilians who are used to obtain information about criminal activity and/or participate in it so evidence can be obtained for an arrest are called:

Informants.

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According to South, some of the ethical problems with informants include all except:

Informants Being Killed.

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Which of the following statements about interrogations is true?

The "third degree" is no longer legitimate.

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The term entrapment refers to when an otherwise innocent person commits an illegal act because:

Of police encouragement or enticement.

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According to Barker and Carter, accepted lies must meet all of the following standards except:

Those involved in the lie must readily admit lying if prompted by a superior officer or legal authority.

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Which of the following statements is true?

One of the biggest problems with informants is that their reliability is highly questionable.

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"The 'end' of drug interdiction justifies the 'means' of harassing and inconveniencing a racial or ethnic minority group." This statement is most likely to be supported by:

A utilitarian system.

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The continuum-of-force approach allows the officer to.

Employ increasing levels of force in direct response to escalating resistance of the suspect.

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There are two approaches used to determine whether entrapment has occurred:

The objective and the subjective approaches.

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According to Klockars, lying to a mentally ill person by telling him/her that the police will take care of laser beams from Mars is an example of:

Blue Lies or Police Placebos.

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In Barker and Carter's proposed typology of lies, deviant lies are:

Those used in the courtroom to make a case or cover up a wrongdoing.

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According to research provided in the text, which of the following is not a factor associated with the use of force by police?

Time of year (season).

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Which of the following statements is false?

Hispanics are less likely than blacks to report feeling that the police would treat them fairly.

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The most common reasons for false convictions include all of the following EXCEPT:

Inaccurate reporting in the media.

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List one factor that is a suspect characteristic and one factor that is a police characteristic that may increase the likelihood of force being used by the police on the defendant: Police:___________________________ Suspect: ___________

Police: Male. Suspect: Mentally ill.

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According to the objective approach, if the state or police provided an "essential element" that made the crime possible, or if there was extensive and coercive pressure on the defendant to engage in criminal actions, a court might rule that ____________________ had occurred.

Entrapment.

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In May 2010, _____________passed a controversial law requiring police officers in the state to ask for proof of citizenship or residency if there was reasonable suspicion that the person was an illegal immigrant.

Arizona

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The strongest ethical argument against undercover officers having intimate relationships with suspects comes from:

Ethics of Care

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